Juvenile Justice

December 1, 2000

U.S. Department of Justice
Office of Justice Programs
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
Raising Responsible and
Resourceful Youth
Also
u Strengthening Families
u Empowering Parents
Volume VII| Number 3
From the Administrator
The family is the foundation of society and a principal factor in the future of
children. This issue of Juvenile Justice highlights the importance of parent-child relationships
and features ways that we can strengthen the capacity of families to make
the crucial contributions to their children’s welfare that they are uniquely able to do.
The White House Conference on Teenagers brought together parents, teenagers,
and professionals to share their concerns about “Raising Responsible and Resourceful
Youth.” As First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton reminds us, “America’s teenagers
need—and want—guidance and support from their families.” A number of initiatives
have come out of the conference, including some designed to help parents spend
critical time with their teens.
Families are, of course, the first point of social contact for children and thus play a
key role in their development, as Rose Alvarado and Karol Kumpfer note in describing
effective programs and best practices in “Strengthening America’s Families.”
Improving parenting practices is an effective and enduring strategy in preventing
and addressing juvenile delinquency.
The challenges families face are considerable, and one of the most difficult occurs
when a child is reported missing—as takes place in the United States more than
2,000 times each day. “Team H.O.P.E.” helps parents of missing children by linking
them with experienced and trained volunteers who have also undergone the crisis of
having a missing child, as Michelle Jezycki reports.
This issue also describes the publication “America’s Children: Key National Indicators
of Well-Being,” which reports statistical indicators that reflect America’s
progress in taking care of its children.
It is my hope that the information in this important issue of our Journal will help
ensure that the future of our children is the brightest possible.
John J. Wilson
Acting Administrator
Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention
Volume VII| Number 3 December 2000
810 Seventh Street NW.
Washington, DC 20531
(202) 307–5911
John J. Wilson
Acting Administrator
Editorial Advisory Board
John J. Wilson, Chair
Betty Chemers
Deputy Administrator
Discretionary Programs
Acting Director
Research and Program
Development Division
Eileen M. Garry
Acting Deputy Administrator
State, Local, and Tribal Programs
and Child Protection
Director
Information Dissemination and
Planning Unit
Kimberly J. Budnick, Director
Concentration of Federal
Efforts Program
Donn Davis, Acting Director
Special Emphasis Division
Roberta Dorn, Director
State and Tribal
Assistance Division
Ronald Laney, Director
Child Protection Division
Emily Martin, Director
Training and Technical
Assistance Division
Executive Editor
Eileen M. Garry
Managing Editor
Catherine Doyle
Senior Editor
Earl E. Appleby, Jr.
Production Editor
Ellen McLaughlin
Juvenile Justice (ISSN 1524–6647) is
published by the Office of Juvenile
Justice and Delinquency Prevention
(OJJDP) to advance its mandate to
disseminate information regarding
juvenile delinquency and prevention
programs (42 U.S.C. 5652).
FEATURES
Raising Responsible and Resourceful Youth ........................................ 3
Too often, teenagers feel alienated. The White House Conference on Teenagers
focused attention on ways that families and communities can teach youth sound
values, promote healthy behavior, and support positive development.
Strengthening America’s Families
by Rose Alvarado and Karol Kumpfer .......................................................... 8
Improving parenting practices and the family environment is the most effective and
enduring strategy for combating juvenile delinquency.
Team H.O.P.E.: Help Offering Parents Empowerment
by Michelle Jezycki .............................................................................. 19
Team H.O.P.E. helps families of missing children cope with their crises by linking
them with trained volunteers who have gone through similar experiences.
IN BRIEF
Justice Matters
Parenting as Prevention ........................................................................................ 25
Parents: The Anti-Drug ........................................................................................ 25
Publications
America’s Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being .............................. 27
When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide ...................................... 28
Family Strengthening Series ................................................................................. 28
Youth in Action Series ......................................................................................... 29
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Lives of Boys ........................................ 29
OJJDP Online
Parenting Resources .............................................................................................. 30
ORDER FORM ....................................................................................................... 31
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is a component of the Office of Justice
Programs, which also includes the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the
National Institute of Justice, and the Office for Victims of Crime.
Points of view or opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily
represent the official position or policies of OJJDP or the U.S. Department of Justice.
Raising Responsible and Resourceful Youth
Volume VII| Number 3 3
T
Raising Responsible
and Resourceful Youth
oo often, teenagers feel alienated from their communities, and
parents of teenagers frequently worry about the well-being of their
children. According to Karen Pittman, Ph.D., Executive Director of
the International Youth Foundation, to be fully prepared for the future,
youth need academic, social, emotional, vocational, and civic
confidence. Teenagers today “need to be competent, they need to be
confident, they need to have character, connections, and . . . they
need to be contributors.”1
To address concerns of parents and teenagers, President Clinton convened the first
White House Conference on Teenagers: Raising Responsible and Resourceful Youth
in May 2000. The conference, which brought together parents, teenagers, educators,
youth workers, researchers, policymakers, and representatives from foundations, focused
attention on ways that families and communities can teach youth sound values,
promote healthy behavior, and support positive youth development.
In her syndicated column Talking It Over,2 Hillary Rodham Clinton summarizes the
conference’s topics of discussion and announces several new initiatives and resources
for youth and their families. These are described in greater detail on pages 5–7.
Hillary Rodham Clinton’s weekly
column, Talking It Over, has
drawn on her experiences as
First Lady and on her observations
as an advocate for families.
Ms. Clinton is the U.S. Senatorelect
for New York.
Talking It Over
by Hillary Rodham Clinton
Despite declarations of independence and
“KEEP OUT” signs hung on closed bedroom
doors, America’s teenagers need—
and want—guidance and support from
their parents.
This information comes from a new poll
commissioned by the YMCA, and released
this morning at the first-ever
White House Conference on Teenagers.
And the news may come as a surprise to
many parents. After all, isn’t this the age
when our children would rather spend
two hours talking on the phone to a
friend than 10 minutes in a conversation
with Mom or Dad?
Yet, according to the poll, more than
three out of four teenagers say they still
turn to their parents in times of trouble.
In fact, while parents list the threat of
drugs and alcohol as their chief worries,
teenagers themselves list education and
“not having enough time” with their
parents as their top concerns.
4
Juvenile Justice
Today’s conference brought together
parents, teens, policymakers and other
experts to discuss the importance of the
teenage years in the social and intellectual
development of children. Like the
1997 White House Conference on Early
Childhood Development and Learning,
today’s gathering underscored some of
the common misconceptions that parents
have, and offered strategies for raising
responsible and resourceful children.
One of the biggest casualties of modern
life is family time—that time when parents
and children can check out of their
busy schedules, and check in with each
other. Before our daughter left for college,
my husband and I made it a priority
to share at least one meal with her every
day. It wasn’t always easy, but we made
the effort, and that half-hour in the small
kitchen of our private quarters was my
favorite part of the day.
By making the time to be together,
Bill and I sent our daughter a simple
message—one that she carried with her
when she went 3,000 miles away to college:
Whenever she needs to talk, to ask
advice, or just say hello, we will always
be available and eager to listen.
One of the initiatives that I was proud to
announce this morning is a new public
awareness campaign designed to challenge
parents to make more time for
their teens, and encourage businesses to
offer more flexible work schedules and
Photo courtesy of the White House
America’s teens are full of promise
and potential.
It has been my good fortune, over the
last 30 years, to talk to thousands of teens
in hundreds of settings. Despite negative
messages too often sent by the media,
America’s teens are full of promise and
potential. But ask them, and they will
tell you that what should be the best
years of their lives are too often filled
with stress, alienation and confusion.
What teens need—a theme returned to
by each speaker today—is a connection.
They need a relationship with an adult
who cares about them. In the words of
psychologist Urie Bronfenbrenner,
“Somebody’s got to be crazy about that
kid, and vice versa!”
Dr. Robert Blum, one of the country’s
leading experts on adolescent health,
assured us that “families matter.” His
research shows that, when families are
connected, sexual activity is delayed,
and there is less tobacco and alcohol
use, less emotional distress and less violence.
“The key,” he says, “is giving
young people the consistent message
that they matter.”
But how do parents send that message?
One way, espoused by many of today’s
speakers, is by having dinner—or lunch,
or breakfast—together.
Raising Responsible and Resourceful Youth
Volume VII| Number 3 5
policies for parents. The President, who
announced that he will sign an Executive
Order prohibiting discrimination
against parents in the federal workforce,
challenged all employers: “Don’t put up
glass ceilings for parents. A parent’s job
is tough enough.”
Ben Casey of the Dallas YMCA described
the role that community organizations can
play. In Dallas, the Y has initiated a partnership
with a dot-com grocery store, a
dry cleaner and a pharmacy. When parents
arrive to pick up their children at the
Y, they can also pick up their groceries,
their cleaning and their pharmacy items.
In return for this free service, each family
must agree to go home, turn off the TV,
and have dinner together.
This is just the kind of support busy
parents—and their children—need.
Hundreds of programs like this are working
all over the country, but getting the
word out isn’t always easy. For that reason,
I was pleased to announce that a
new White House task force will create
a web site to link parents to successful
programs just like this one.3 A companion
site will offer age-appropriate resources
for their children.
Laura Sessions Stepp, author of “Our
Last Best Shot: Guiding Our Children
Through Early Adolescence,” summed
up the three Rs that teens need to reach
their full promise and potential: respect,
responsibility and close relationships. It
is time for all of us—not just parents—to
do a better job of telling teens that we
value them, we love them, we care about
them, and we want to be involved in
their lives.
Conference Initiatives and
Resources
YMCA Poll
According to a poll released by the YMCA
(Young Men’s Christian Association) of
the USA, Chicago, IL, and announced
at the White House Conference on
Teenagers, parents and teens suffer from
a significant communication gap.4 Most
parents polled (64 percent) believe that
they talk to their children frequently
about values and beliefs, but only 41 percent
of teens surveyed state that this is
done on a regular basis.
Similarly, most parents (62 percent) believe
that their teens share their values,
but only 46 percent of teens agree. Many
teens report that their friends heavily influence
their values and that it is their
friends to whom they turn for advice.
Thirty-seven percent of 15-year-olds
state that their friends have the biggest
influence on their values, and 67 percent
of the same age group report that when
they need help, they consult their friends
for advice. Forty percent of teens who do
turn to friends for guidance on values revealed
that they do so because they feel
that their parents are unable or unwilling
to spend time with them.
The poll revealed that although parents
may feel they discuss difficult issues such
as sex, alcohol, and drugs with their children,
the children do not necessarily believe
this to be the case. For example,
43 percent of parents feel that they discuss
sex frequently with their teenage
children, while just 26 percent of teenagers
feel that sex is a regular topic of
discussion in their home.
6
Juvenile Justice
The poll also found that parents and
teens differ in what they regard as their
primary concerns. Most parents fear dangers
from outside the home, such as juvenile
substance abuse (24 percent), while
one of teens’ biggest concerns is that they
do not get to spend enough time with
their parents (21 percent). Thirty-four
percent of both parents and teenagers
identify parental work obligations as the
primary culprit in disrupting family time.
Time With Your Teens
Campaign
In her address to the White House Conference
on Teenagers, First Lady Hillary
Clinton stated that “even if your teenager
or your preteen doesn’t want you
following her or him around, in many
ways they need you around.” To heighten
awareness of the importance of teens and
parents spending time together, the National
Partnership for Women and Families
and the Families and Work Institute
are developing the Time With Your
Teens Campaign.
The campaign will highlight actions
businesses and employers can take to
enable parents to spend more time with
their children. These include providing
flexible work schedules, allowing job
sharing, and revising leave policies.
Among other campaign activities, the
National Partnership for Women and
Families will focus on how the proposed
expansions to the Family and Medical
Leave Act could help parents spend critical
time with their teens. The campaign
will emphasize the need for parental involvement
in middle and high schools
and challenge parents and teens to
spend more time together. In addition,
the U.S. Office of Personnel Management
will raise awareness of the previously
noted parental work benefits and
will urge agencies to provide employees
with information on teen development
and related issues and encourage the establishment
of parental support groups.
One of teens’ biggest concerns is that
they do not get to spend enough time with
their parents.
Work, however, is not the only problem.
Thirty-six percent of parents and 29 percent
of teens report that teens spend
more time watching television or sitting
in front of the computer than they do
with their parents. When asked about
how often they supervise their teenage
children’s online activities, parents’ answers
differ significantly from what their
children report. Seventy-one percent of
parents indicate that they monitor their
children’s use of the Internet, but 45 percent
of teens state that they are online
all or most of the time without parental
supervision.
Parents and teens, however, do seem to
spend some time together frequently.
Parents report spending approximately
80 minutes per day talking with their
teenage children and eating together an
average of eight meals per week. Despite
the communication problems previously
noted, most teens (78 percent) report that
they still turn to their parents for advice.
Raising Responsible and Resourceful Youth
Volume VII| Number 3 7
New Media Task Force
During the White House Conference
on Teenagers, the First Lady announced
the White House Task Force on Navi-
On May 2, 2000, President Clinton
signed Executive Order 13152 to bar
discrimination against federally employed
parents (65 Fed. Reg. 26115
(2000)). Employee recruitment, referral,
hiring, promotion, discharge,
and training are all affected. Employers
in the executive branch would
also be prohibited from assuming
that employees who are parents or
who have parental responsibilities
would be incapable of performing in
particular positions.
The Executive Order is an amendment
to Executive Order 11478,
Equal Employment Opportunity
in Federal Government. In newly
added section 6, “status as a parent”
is defined as:
u A biological parent.
u An adoptive parent.
u A foster parent.
u A stepparent.
u A custodian of a legal ward.
u In loco parentis (a person acting
in place of a parent).
u A person actively seeking legal
custody or adoption.
gating the New Media Age. As a companion
site to the Parenting Resources Web
site (www.parentingresources.ncjrs.org)
launched by the Coordinating Council on
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention,
the task force has created a Web site
for teenagers (www.americasteens.gov).
This site links teenagers to college, community
service, and internship and career
opportunities and provides them with
information on topics such as education,
substance abuse, teen health, and safety.
Another Web site, the Parental Media
Guide (www.parentalguide.org), educates
parents on how to understand and monitor
what their children are experiencing
while surfing the Web, listening to music,
or watching movies or television.
In preparation for the White House
Conference on Teenagers, the First Lady
challenged the media and entertainment
industries to develop the guide, which
links users to the parental guidelines of
the movie, software, radio, and television
industries.
Notes
1. White House Conference on Teenagers: Raising
Responsible and Resourceful Youth, Washington,
DC, May 2, 2000.
2. Copyright © 2000 Creators Syndicate, Inc. All
rights reserved.
3. Parenting Resources for the 21st Century
(www.parentingresources.ncjrs.org) was launched
in June 2000.
4. Global Strategy Group of New York, NY, and
Washington, DC, conducted the poll for the
YMCA, interviewing 200 children between ages
12 and 15 and 200 parents of children between
ages 12 and 15. For further information about the
poll, visit the YMCA’s Web site, www.ymca.net.
8
Juvenile Justice
D
Rose Alvarado, Ph.D., a research
assistant professor at the University
of Utah’s Department of
Health Promotion and Education,
serves as Director of OJJDP’s
Strengthening America’s Families
Initiative.
Karol Kumpfer, Ph.D., an associate
professor at the University
of Utah’s Department of Health
Promotion and Education, served as
Director of the Center for Substance
Abuse Prevention from 1997 to
2000.
Strengthening
America’s Families
by Rose Alvarado and Karol Kumpfer
elinquency and violence are rooted in a number of interrelated
social problems, including child abuse and neglect, early sexual involvement
and teen pregnancy, alcohol and drug abuse, youth conflict and aggression,
family violence, gang participation, and insufficient education.
Often, these problems are inadequately addressed in the family environment
or may even have originated within the family itself. Because families
are the first point of a child’s social contact, it is essential that parents
understand the critical role they play in their children’s development and
that they be equipped with the information and skills necessary to raise
healthy and well-adapted children. Improving parenting practices and
the family environment is the most effective and enduring strategy for
combating juvenile delinquency and associated behavioral, social, and
emotional problems. Accordingly, society should promote learning
opportunities for successful parenting.
Although children and adolescents are
generally more accessible through
schools or community groups and are
typically easier to work with in delinquency
prevention activities than are
entire families, it is important to begin
focusing on the needs of the family as a
whole. Garnering a commitment from
parents who may face numerous obstacles
to participation can be challenging, but
it is worth the investment. Transportation
and childcare needs and time demands
are among the constraints that
programs must address to promote successful
parent participation. While efforts
focusing on youth should continue,
mounting evidence demonstrates that
strengthening the entire family often has
a more enduring impact on the child.
Family Protective and
Risk Factors
The likelihood that a youth will develop
delinquency problems increases as the
number of risk factors grows in relation
to the number of protective factors. The
goal of family-based prevention programs
should be to decrease risk factors and to
increase protective factors. According
to Bry (1996) and other researchers, the
principal family protective factors are
supportive parent-child relationships,
positive discipline methods, close monitoring
and supervision, parental advocacy
for their children, and parental pursuit of
needed information and support. A longitudinal
study of delinquency, funded by
Strengthening America’s Families
Volume VII| Number 3 9
the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention (OJJDP) (Huizinga,
Loeber, and Thornberry, 1995), found
that parental supervision, attachment to
parents, and consistency of discipline are
the most important protective factors in
promoting resilience to delinquency in
high-risk youth.
Family risk factors include the following
(Kumpfer and Alvarado, 1995):
u Poor socialization practices.
u Modeling of antisocial values and
behaviors.
u Poor supervision of the child, including
failure to monitor the child’s activities.
u Poor discipline skills.
u Poor quality of parent-child
relationships.
u Excessive family conflict and aggressive
behavior in youth.
u Family chaos and stress.
u Poor parental mental health.
u Family isolation.
u Poverty and community violence.
u Differential acculturation and acculturation
stress.
u Sibling and peer drug use.
Strengthening America’s
Families Initiative
To provide parents with the critical skills
required to enhance family resilience and
decrease risk factors, OJJDP launched its
Strengthening America’s Families Initiative
in the mid-1980’s. The initiative’s
goals are to identify best practices that
can meet the needs of diverse communities
and disseminate these family-focused
approaches to practitioners. With OJJDP
support, the University of Utah developed
a methodology for program identification
and implemented a dissemination model,
which included plans for developing a
Web site, distributing printed material,
showcasing family-based programs at
national conferences, coordinating 2-
to 3-day program-specific training workshops,
and providing technical assistance.
Minigrants for family-based program
implementation were also funded.
Parental supervision, attachment to
parents, and consistency of discipline are
the most important protective factors.
In 1999, OJJDP joined with the Center
for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP)
and the University of Utah to continue
and expand the initiative. OJJDP,
CSAP, and the University of Utah collaboratively
updated the methodology for
best practices identification, sponsored
2 national conferences in 2000, and
offered 16 program-specific training
workshops across the country. In addition,
CSAP awarded 2-year funding to
95 agencies to implement the best practice
models and to gather data on the
effectiveness of the programs. Using
these data, researchers will determine
whether the programs, once disseminated
and adapted to meet community needs,
are effective in reducing delinquency,
violence, and related problems such as
substance abuse.
OJJDP and CSAP jointly conducted the
1999 search for best practices and found
a number of effective family-focused
prevention strategies that target a variety
of family needs and help numerous
family types (see table 1 on pages 10–
11). The 35 programs identified as best
practices vary from structured programs
with standardized written curriculums to
open-ended support groups. Some programs
work exclusively with parents
10
Juvenile Justice
Table 1: Best Practices, 1999
Program Type Targeted Age
Exemplary I
Functional Family Therapy Family therapy 6–18
Helping the Noncompliant Child Parent training 3–7
The Incredible Years: Parents, Teachers,
and Children Training Series Comprehensive 3–10
Multisystemic Therapy (MST) Comprehensive 10–18
Preparing for the Drug Free Years Parent training 8–14
Strengthening Families Program Family skills training 6–10
Treatment Foster Care Parent training 12–18
Exemplary II
Adolescent Transitions Program Parent training 11–18
Brief Strategic Family Therapy Family therapy 0–18
Multidimensional Family Therapy Family therapy 11–18
Parenting Wisely Parent training 6–18
Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse
Home Visitation Program In-home support 0–5
Raising a Thinking Child: I Can
Problem Solve Program for Families Parent training 4–7
Strengthening Families Program:
For Parents and Youth 10–14 Family skills training 10–14
Model
Creating Lasting Family Connections Parent training 9–17
DARE to be You Comprehensive 2–5
Effective Black Parenting Program
(Center for the Improvement of
Child Caring) Parent training 2–18
Families and Schools Together Comprehensive 3–14
Focus on Families Parent training 3–14
while others work with the entire family
and encourage extended family participation.
A number of programs incorporate
strategies designed specifically for
biological families, foster families,
single-parent families, teen parents,
Strengthening America’s Families
Volume VII| Number 3 11
Table 1: Best Practices, 1999 (Continued)
Program Type Targeted Age
Model (Continued)
Healthy and Fair Start (CEDEN Family
Resource Center) In-home support 0–5
Healthy Families America Comprehensive 0–5
Home Instruction Program for
Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) In-home support 3–5
HOMEBUILDERS Comprehensive 0–18
MELD Parent training 0–5
NICASA Parent Project (Northern
Illinois Council on Alcoholism
and Substance Abuse) Parent training 0–18
Nurturing Parenting Program Family skills training 1–18
Parents as Teachers Parent training 0–5
Parents Who Care Family skills training 12–16
Project SEEK (Services to Enable
and Empower Kids) Comprehensive 0–18
Strengthening Hawaii Families Family skills training 5–12
Promising
Bethesda Day Treatment Comprehensive 10–18
Make Parenting a Pleasure Parent training 0–8
Nurturing Program for Families in
Substance Abuse Treatment
and Recovery Family skills training 0–18
Parents AnonymousR Comprehensive 0–18
Strengthening Multi-Ethnic
Families and Communities Parent training 3–18
Note: Two-page summaries of the programs (including program training and implementation
costs and direct links to individual program Web sites) can be found on the Strengthening
America’s Families Web site at www.strengtheningfamilies.org.
ethnic families, families with an incarcerated
parent, families in which both
parents work outside the home, and
rural and inner-city families. The programs
work with families of children of
a variety of ages, from the prenatal stage
12
Juvenile Justice
u Strengthening Families Program.
This 14-week family skills training program
is designed to reduce risk factors
for substance abuse and other problem behaviors.
The program includes three separate
courses: Parent Training, Children’s
Training, and Family Life Skills Training.
Families with children ages 6 to 10 attend
the program as a family. The parents and
children attend separate sessions for the
first hour of the program and then come
together as a family for the second hour
to practice the skills they have learned.
Parents learn strategies for effective family
communication, problem solving, and
limit setting while children learn about
communication, social skills, and ways to
resist peer pressure. Positive outcomes
have been found in a number of independent
program evaluations. The program
reduced children’s problem behaviors,
improved children’s emotional status
and prosocial skills, and improved parenting
skills and family environment and
functioning.
u Prenatal and Early Childhood
Nurse Home Visitation Program. This
program is designed to improve the
health and social functioning of lowincome
first-time mothers and their
babies. Nurse home visitors develop a
supportive relationship with the pregnant
mother and family and provide
them with information on personal and
environmental health, maternal roles,
life course development, and the value
of support from family and friends. The
home visits continue until the child
reaches age 2, with the frequency of
visits varying depending on the child’s
age. Two randomized clinical trials reveal
substantial reductions in rates of
cigarette smoking among pregnant
women, hypertensive disorders, child
maltreatment, and subsequent pregnancy
among low-income, unmarried
women.
through high school. The following descriptions
illustrate the broad spectrum
of programs that were selected as best
practices:1
u The Incredible Years: Parents,
Teachers, and Children Training
Series. The parent training curriculum
of this series, designed for parents of children
ages 3 to 12, focuses on strengthening
parents’ monitoring and disciplinary
skills and building their confidence. The
curriculum includes an 11-week basic
program that uses videotapes depicting
real-life situations. Parents meet in
groups and cover topics such as Helping
Children Learn, The Value of Praise and
Encouragement, Effective Limit Setting,
and Handling Misbehavior. The basic
program can be supplemented with a
videotape training series, Supporting Your
Child’s Education, which focuses on how
parents can help their children academically.
Parents may also opt to take the advanced
training program, which teaches
parents interpersonal skills such as effective
communication and problem solving,
anger management, and ways to give and
get support. Several studies of this training
series have revealed that parents and
teachers were able to significantly reduce
children’s problem behaviors and increase
their social competence and academic
engagement.
Copyright © 2000 James Carroll c/o Artville
Strengthening America’s Families
Volume VII| Number 3 13
u Multisystemic Therapy (MST). The
primary goals of this intensive home-based
family treatment are to reduce rates of
antisocial behavior in youth ages 10 to
18, reduce out-of-home placements, and
empower families to resolve difficulties.
Goals are developed in collaboration with
the family, and family strengths are used
as levers for change. MST treats factors in
the youth’s environment that are contributing
to behavior problems in addition to
addressing individual characteristics of the
youth such as poor problem-solving skills,
academic difficulties, or association with
deviant peers. Randomized clinical trials
have demonstrated that the program reduces
long-term rates of criminal activity,
incarceration, and concomitant costs.
u Project SEEK (Services to Enable
and Empower Kids). This program focuses
on families with children from
birth through age 11 in which a parent is
in prison. The program is designed to reduce
the probability that children of inmates
will participate in delinquent or
criminal activities, thereby breaking the
intergenerational cycle of criminality.
This comprehensive program is a home
visitation model that works to improve
parenting practices and the child’s social
competency, cognitive development, and
emotional well-being; promote a positive
caregiving environment; and maintain
appropriate parent-child relationships
while the parent is incarcerated. Preliminary
analyses show an increase in youth’s
cognitive skills, academic self-esteem,
and internal locus of control; lower recidivism
among released inmates; and a
significant reduction in the number of
times youth change schools.
Programs are divided into exemplary,
model, and promising categories based on
the degree, quality, and outcomes of research
associated with them. Table 2 lists
the programs by population served and
age category and may be helpful in determining
at a glance which programs best
meet the needs of a community. Further
information on the selection process and
program classification follows.2 This information
may benefit nonprofit agency
service providers, researchers, government
agency representatives, and others
in their search for outstanding familybased
programs for the prevention of
juvenile delinquency, violence, and
substance abuse in communities across
the country.
In Multisystemic Therapy, family
strengths are used as levers for change.
1999 Search for
Effective Programs
OJJDP, CSAP, and the University of
Utah established a pool of programs
for committee review. In previous
searches, the University of Utah solicited
nominations from every State in
the United States. In the original 1989
search, for example, the committee reviewed
more than 500 programs. During
the 1999 search, CSAP and the
University of Utah used unique strategies
to identify potential programs for
consideration. Programs were drawn
primarily from:
u Model programs identified in the
1994 search.
u Programs identified in Preventing
Substance Abuse Among Children and
Adolescents: Family Centered Approaches
(Center for Substance Abuse Prevention,
1998).
u A search of the scientific literature.
u Recommendations from program
developers.
14
Juvenile Justice
Table 2: Strengthening America’s Families Program Matrix
Universal Selected Indicated
Ages (General Population) (High-Risk Population) (In-Crisis Population)
HIPPY (Model)
New York, NY
Make Parenting a Pleasure
(Promising) Eugene, OR
MELD (Model)
Minneapolis, MN
Parents as Teachers (Model)
St. Louis, MO
Raising a Thinking Child:
I Can Problem Solve
Program for Families
(Exemplary II)
Philadelphia, PA
Preparing for the Drug Free
Years (Exemplary I)
Seattle, WA
DARE to be You (Model)
Cortez, CO
Healthy Families America
(Model) Indianapolis, IN
Prenatal and Early Childhood
Nurse Home Visitation
Program (Exemplary II)
Denver, CO
The Incredible Years: Parents,
Teachers, and Children
Training Series (Exemplary I)
Seattle, WA
Strengthening Families
Program (Exemplary I)
Salt Lake City, UT
Strengthening Hawaii
Families (Model)
Honolulu, HI
Families and Schools
Together (Model)
Madison, WI
Healthy and Fair Start
(Model) Austin, TX
Helping the Noncompliant
Child (Exemplary I)
Seattle, WA
Focus on Families (Model)
Seattle, WA
University of Utah staff working with
OJJDP and staff from the National Center
for the Advancement of Prevention
(NCAP) working with CSAP contacted
program developers directly to request
their formal submissions. Not all program
developers who were contacted chose to
participate in the search. Failure to participate
was due to either lack of time
to compile the information needed or
other reasons.
Program Submissions
Program developers submitted 10-page
descriptions of their programs and research
publications or evaluation reports detailing
the effectiveness of the programs. If
0–5
6–10
Strengthening America’s Families
Volume VII| Number 3 15
Parents Who Care (Model)
Seattle, WA
Strengthening Families
Program: For Parents
and Youth 10–14
(Exemplary II)
Ames, IA
Table 2: Strengthening America’s Families Program Matrix (Continued)
Universal Selected Indicated
Ages (General Population) (High-Risk Population) (In-Crisis Population)
NICASA Parent Project
(Model) Round Lake, IL
Parents AnonymousR
(Promising)
Compton, CA
Adolescent Transitions Program
(Exemplary II) Eugene, OR
Creating Lasting Family
Connections (Model)
Louisville, KY
Effective Black Parenting Program
(Model) Studio City, CA
Nurturing Parenting Program
(Model) Park City, UT
Strengthening Multi-Ethnic
Families and Communities
(Promising) Los Angeles, CA
Bethesda Day Treatment
(Promising) Milton, PA
HOMEBUILDERS (Model)
Federal Way, WA
Parenting Wisely
(Exemplary II) Athens, OH
Project SEEK (Model)
Lansing, MI
Nurturing Program for Families
in Substance Abuse
Treatment and Recovery
(Promising)
Cambridge, MA
Brief Strategic Family Therapy
(Exemplary II) Miami, FL
Functional Family Therapy
(Exemplary I)
Salt Lake City, UT
MST (Exemplary I)
Charleston, SC
Multidimensional Family
Therapy (Exemplary II)
Miami, FL
Treatment Foster Care
(Exemplary I) Eugene, OR
applicable, they also were asked to provide
the program curriculum material.
The 10-page descriptions provided information
on the following areas:
u Program history.
u Theoretical assumptions.
u Expected outcomes.
u Target population.
u Format and content of the program.
u Teaching methods.
u Staffing requirements.
u Evaluation methodology, including
research design, measures, data collection,
analyses, and results.
u Replicability.
u Capacity for dissemination.
11–18
0–18
16
Juvenile Justice
This information was forwarded to a panel
of experts on the National Program Review
Committee (NPRC).
u Fidelity of the intervention.
u Sampling strategy and implementation.
u Attrition.
u Measures.
u Data collection.
u Missing data.
u Analysis.
u Replicability.
u Dissemination capability.
u Cultural and age appropriateness.
u Program integrity.
u Program utility.
Reviewers rated each program independently,
discussed their ratings, and made
final determinations regarding the appropriate
category. The following categories
were used:
u Exemplary I. The program has evaluation
of the highest quality, an experimental
design with a randomized sample,
and replication by an independent investigator
other than the program developer.
Outcome data from numerous
research studies show clear evidence of
program effectiveness.
u Exemplary II. The program has
evaluation of the highest quality and an
experimental design with a randomized
sample. Outcome data from numerous
research studies show clear evidence of
program effectiveness.
u Model. The program has research
of either an experimental or quasiexperimental
design with few or no
replications. Outcome data from the research
project(s) indicate program effectiveness,
but the data are not as strong in
demonstrating program effectiveness as
are the data for the exemplary categories.
u Promising. The program has limited
research and/or employs nonexperimental
Copyright © 2000 PhotoDisc, Inc.
The National Program Review Committee
used numerous criteria to rate and
categorize programs.
National Program Review
Committee
NPRC comprised five groups, each consisting
of three experts. Each of these groups
focused on one of the following areas: family
therapy, family skills training, in-home
family support, and parenting programs.3
The groups reviewed and rated the programs
and reached consensus regarding the
categorization of each program. CSAP
staff, together with University of Utah
staff, determined the final categorization
of programs.
Rating/Categorization
of Programs
NPRC used numerous criteria to rate
and categorize programs, including the
following:
u Theory.
Strengthening America’s Families
Volume VII| Number 3 17
designs. Evaluation data associated with
the program appear promising but require
confirmation using scientific techniques.
The theoretical base or some other aspect
of the program is also sound.
These categories are important in assessing
the degree of scientific rigor of the
programs’ outcome results and in matching
programs to identified needs in a
community.
Meeting Community
Needs
Communities should consider a number
of factors in deciding which practices
best meet their needs (Kumpfer and
Alvarado, 1997). It is crucial that communities
establish specific need in relation
to family-focused programming. In
identifying this need, communities may
examine community statistics on such
topics as juvenile crime, teen pregnancy,
births, and needs assessments. Significant
factors that communities should consider
when selecting an intervention include:
u The developmental appropriateness
of the intervention.
u The risk status of the target population
(general or universal, selective or
high risk, or indicated or in crisis).
u Cultural and language traditions in a
community.
u Appropriateness and effectiveness of
the recruitment and retention strategies.
u Intensity of the program (e.g., 7 weeks
versus 14 weeks, 2 hours versus 5 hours).
u Availability of appropriate program
staff.
u Resources available in the community.
Conclusion
The movement to focus on families has
made great strides over the past decade.
With agencies such as OJJDP and CSAP
working together to support the dissemination
and adoption of theory-based and
effective programs, high-quality prevention
programs have reached families
across the country. Service providers are
teaching effective parenting strategies in
their communities and have touched the
lives of youth and parents who want positive
futures. Through the Strengthening
America’s Families Initiative, many more
parents and children will be reached as
more community leaders choose to invest
in families in their efforts to decrease
juvenile delinquency.
Notes
1. The first three of these programs are described
in greater detail in OJJDP’s Family Strengthening
Series of Bulletins; the fourth program is also
described in an OJJDP Bulletin. These publications
(The Incredible Years Training Series, Family
Skills Training for Parents and Children, Prenatal
and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation, and
Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The
MST Approach) can be found online at OJJDP’s
Web site, www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org.
2. Additional information about the initiative
or individual programs can be found at
www.strengtheningfamilies.org or by contacting
Rose Alvarado or Kay Kendall at the University
of Utah by calling 801–585–9201, e-mailing
fsp@health.utah.edu, or faxing 801–581–5872.
3. Two of the groups focused on this last
program type.
References
Bry, B.H. 1996. Psychological approaches to prevention.
In Drug Policy and Human Nature: Psychological
Perspectives on the Prevention, Management,
and Treatment of Illicit Drug Abuse, edited by
W.K. Bickel and R.J. DeGrandpre. New York,
NY: Plenum Press, pp. 55–76.
18
Juvenile Justice
Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. 1998.
Preventing Substance Abuse Among Children and
Adolescents: Family Centered Approaches. Prevention
Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS).
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, Substance Abuse and
Mental Health Services Administration, Center
for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Huizinga, D., Loeber, R., and Thornberry, T.P.
1995. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse:
Recent Findings From the Program of Research on the
Causes and Correlates of Delinquency. Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice
Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention.
Kumpfer, K.L., and Alvarado, R. 1995. Strengthening
families to prevent drug use in multiethnic
youth. In Drug Abuse Prevention with Multiethnic
Youth, edited by G. Botvin, S. Schinke, and M.
Orlandi. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications,
Inc., pp. 253–292.
Kumpfer, K.L., and Alvarado, R. 1997. Effective
Family Strengthening Interventions. Bulletin. Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention.
Team H.O.P.E.: Help Offering Parents Empowerment
Volume VII| Number 3 19
A
Michelle Jezycki is Project Director
of Team H.O.P.E., a parent
support network for families of
missing children.
Team H.O.P.E.:
Help Offering Parents
Empowerment
by Michelle Jezycki
ccording to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI’s)
National Crime Information Center (NCIC) database, 867,129 individuals
were reported missing in 1999. The FBI estimates that 85–90
percent of those missing persons were juveniles—approximately 2,100
children reported missing every day (National Center for Missing and
Exploited Children, 2000).
These missing children cases include the
following:
u Family abductions (international
and domestic). Children abducted or
illegally retained by a parent or relative
in violation of a legal or verbal custody
agreement or other living arrangement.
u Nonfamily abductions. Children
abducted by a nonfamily member.
u Runaway children. Children who
leave home voluntarily without the
knowledge or consent of parents or legal
guardians and stay away for at least one
night.
u Lost, injured, or otherwise missing
children. Children lost, injured, and
failing to return home.
Coping with the trauma of having a child
who is missing demands courage and determination
on the part of parents and
other family members, who often feel
isolated in facing their fears and frustrations.
Through Team H.O.P.E. (Help
Offering Parents Empowerment), OJJDP
seeks to support parents of missing children.
Parents who have undergone similar
crises can help other families of
missing children to cope with their situation.
As Thomas Jefferson observed,
“Who then can so softly bind up the
wound of another as he who has felt the
same wound himself?”
Established in 1998, Team H.O.P.E.
helps families of missing children handle
the day-to-day issues of coping with holidays,
birthdays, and disappearance anniversaries;
caring for family members;
keeping marriages together; and working
with the media and law enforcement.
Team H.O.P.E. links victim parents with
experienced and trained parent volunteers
who have gone through the experience
of having a missing child. Because
they speak from firsthand experience,
these volunteers provide compassion,
counsel, and support in ways no other
community agency can.
20
Juvenile Justice
Team H.O.P.E. volunteers include parents,
guardians, and siblings.1 Nominations of
potential parent mentors originate from
volunteers, the National Center for Missing
and Exploited Children (NCMEC),
State Missing Children Clearinghouses,
nonprofit organizations dealing with
missing children issues, law enforcement
officials, and childcare organizations.
Nominees have demonstrated the ability to
turn their personal tragedies into vital lifelines
of support for other families. Potential
mentors are screened and trained before
becoming Team H.O.P.E. volunteers.
u Protocols, training, and other factors
affecting law enforcement’s response to
these cases.
u Guidelines for dealing with families
in crisis.
u Techniques for asking questions and
listening with compassion.
u Types of support volunteers can offer
victim families.
u National, State, and local services,
resources, and agencies available to
victim families.
Volunteers are also trained to respond to
the needs of families of runaway children,
because the number of referrals involving
endangered runaways has grown. Families
of endangered runaways experience additional
anguish, as the missing child purportedly
left voluntarily. Volunteers help
the family to address the root of the
problem upon the child’s return rather
than ignoring it because they fear the
child will run away again.2
Many parents of missing children are
unaware of the resources available to
them and do not fully understand the
role of law enforcement in their cases.
CR training sessions provide volunteers
Team H.O.P.E. volunteers include
parents, guardians, and siblings.
Compassionate
Response Training
Team H.O.P.E. has conducted several
Compassionate Response (CR) training
sessions. Training includes discussion of:
u Issues associated with the range of
missing children cases.
Our daughter’s tumultuous dance with running away began nearly 2 years ago, when she had just turned 14.
I felt terribly alone in that certainly no other family had experienced what I was going through. Otherwise, I
reasoned, other families, local agencies, or law enforcement would have told me where to go or what book to read.
Instead, there was no one to answer the hard questions; no one to tell me what to expect or how to respond. No
one seemed to be telling anyone about what was going on. Mostly, I’ve found out, runaway families are often busy
hiding—hiding from rejection, hiding from shame, and hiding from guilt. Hiding because, even when the runaway
returns, there is the constant fear that he or she will walk out the door again.
And then one day, I grew increasingly frustrated by the roadblocks I kept encountering while searching for my
child. I went on another kind of search: to find out what in the world was out there to help us leave-behinds—the
parents and her siblings. There had to be something, and I found it—Team H.O.P.E. Through Team H.O.P.E., I
learned of ways to help local law enforcement; ways to encourage and console my other children; ways of coping
with each difficult day. Most important, I learned that I wasn’t alone . . . and that life goes on, even in the midst of
tragedy. Through the faith and hope of the Team H.O.P.E. parent volunteers, I learned how to keep my own faith
and keep putting one foot in front of the other.
—Mother of recovered child and Team H.O.P.E. parent volunteer
Team H.O.P.E.: Help Offering Parents Empowerment
Volume VII| Number 3 21
participate and interact with volunteers.
Through this interaction, volunteers
gain insight into the services, responses,
and protocols of the agencies involved
in investigating, locating, and recovering
missing children.
Volunteers share their experiences regarding
what proved helpful in their own
searches, which is often one of the most
valuable tools in helping other families.
With few exceptions, most families of missing
children, including the volunteers,
have had little or no contact with families
in similar situations. Despite diverse circumstances,
these families share similar
concerns and often feel alone in coping
with the challenges confronting them. The
training sessions have benefited not only
the families that volunteers serve but the
volunteers themselves, affording them the
opportunity to share their experiences and
frustrations and to learn from the circumstances
faced by others.
Sometimes, issues arise that cause emotions
to resurface when a volunteer helps
another family in crisis. Accordingly,
volunteers are trained to deal with such
emotions and the grief of families they
help. They also are trained to identify
Copyright © 2000 James Carroll c/o Artville
I cried after watching a movie about a missing boy who ultimately is recovered because I long for the day that I see
my daughter get out of a car and run into my arms. At 18, she disappeared from her afterschool job, and we didn’t get
much help because of her age. She has been missing for 6 years now. After wiping my tears, I called a friend. No matter
how sympathetic she tried to be, she couldn’t console me. She didn’t understand. What does a parent do? Where
do we turn when we feel helpless and alone?
About 2 years ago, I became part of a group called Team H.O.P.E. So I called one of my Team H.O.P.E. friends
and talked to someone who really understood. I started to think back to those first days of my daughter’s disappearance.
If only there had been someone for me to talk to who really understood what I was going through!
Team H.O.P.E. is a lifeline for me and other families of missing children. As a parent volunteer, I get a chance to offer
support to other families and make a difference in how they face each day. Some of my families call me their “angel.”
That sounds funny because helping them helps me to stay sane. Being a part of Team H.O.P.E., I have been able to
gain knowledge from the experience of others so that I, in turn, can pass it on to other families that need support.
The greatest gift that a parent of a missing child can receive—with the exception of their child’s safe return—is
knowledge. “Knowledge is power.” Team H.O.P.E. helps us to have a sense of control in an out-of-control situation.
—Mother of missing child and Team H.O.P.E. volunteer
with information about Federal, State,
and local resources and the array of resources
available to assist the families
of missing children. Representatives of
NCMEC, the FBI, the U.S. Department
of State, INTERPOL (International
Criminal Police Organization), the Immigration
and Naturalization Service,
the U.S. Marshals Service, and the
National Runaway Switchboard also
22
Juvenile Justice
indicators of other needs that families
may have that require help beyond what
Team H.O.P.E. can provide.
Consequently, volunteers are also trained
to help families who have reunited with
their missing children. In the cases involving
Team H.O.P.E. volunteers, many missing
children have returned home. Even
when the child has been recovered, however,
the family often requires additional
support. If the child ran away from home,
the family must address why the child left
home to prevent it from happening again.
If the child was abducted by a family member,
the family may be concerned about
whether another abduction will be attempted.
They may also worry about what
the child was told while in the abductor’s
custody. Team H.O.P.E. volunteers are
trained to support the family through these
trying times. If a child is a chronic runaway,
volunteers may advise parents to
contact organizations such as ToughLove
International (www.toughlove.org). If
families fear reabduction, volunteers can
coach them in communicating with school
and other officials to involve these individuals
in efforts to protect their children.
Referrals to Team
H.O.P.E.
Families referred to Team H.O.P.E. for
support find their way to the project in
a variety of ways. Most families (70 percent)
connect with Team H.O.P.E. after
securing information about the program
from NCMEC. Increasingly, families are
requesting guidance after visiting Team
H.O.P.E.’s Web site, www.teamhope.org.
Other families are referred by law enforcement,
State Missing Children
Clearinghouses, and missing children
nonprofit associations.
Approximately 85 percent of the 800 cases
referred to Team H.O.P.E. involved endangered
runaways; 12 percent, family abductions;
2 percent, lost, injured, or otherwise
missing children; 1 percent, nonfamily abductions;
and less than 1 percent, missing
adults.3 Team H.O.P.E. has worked with
the families of more than 1,000 missing
children (see the table on page 23). The
average age of the children who were endangered
runaways was 14 years; victims of
family abductions, 5 years; lost, injured, or
missing, 11 years old; and victims of
nonfamily abductions, 13 years.
When possible, searching families are
paired with mentors who have gone
through similar experiences. In matching
families with volunteers, project staff
take into account such factors as demographics,
case type, gender, and the
length of time the child has been missing.
The volunteer then initiates contact
with the requesting family to offer support,
resources, and understanding.
When my son was missing, I was assisted by law enforcement, missing children’s organizations, family, and
friends, and yet I felt alone. I felt as though no one understood the pain I was experiencing. I know, from
working with parents of missing children, that contact with someone who has walked in your shoes makes a
big difference. The parent volunteers give searching parents hope, understanding, and empathy. We help
them help themselves. Being a part of Team H.O.P.E. has helped us in our healing process. My son now
knows that he is not unique—that what happened to him is happening to thousands of other children.
Abduction leaves nasty scars that may never disappear entirely. Working with other families has helped me
come to terms with my own experience. It has enabled me to use a negative experience in a positive way by
using what I have learned to help others.
—Mother of recovered child and Team H.O.P.E. parent volunteer
Team H.O.P.E.: Help Offering Parents Empowerment
Volume VII| Number 3 23
Number of Missing Children Whose Families Team H.O.P.E. Helps, by State
Number of Number of Number of Number of
Missing Missing Missing Missing
State Children State Children State Children State Children
AL 9 ID 7 MS 7 PA 30
AR 4 IL 66 MT 1 RI 1
AZ 27 IN 20 NC 27 SC 13
CA 148 KS 10 NE 4 TN 16
CO 21 KY 14 NH 3 TX 62
CT 7 LA 9 NJ 20 UT 14
DC 3 MA 8 NM 3 VA 23
DE 2 MD 23 NV 14 VT 3
FL 109 ME 1 NY 48 WA 13
GA 23 MI 18 OH 43 WI 16
HI 2 MN 21 OK 21 WV 8
IA 13 MO 37 OR 14 WY 2
Note: These data are current as of September 14, 2000.
Additional Avenues
of Help
Team H.O.P.E.’s Web site is an important
element of its services. The site provides
information about the project, offers
legislative updates, and includes links to
additional resources. Parents of missing
children may also request assistance by
e-mailing project staff. The site enables
users to access relevant publications such
as When Your Child Is Missing: A Family
Survival Guide (Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention, 1998). Written
by parents of missing children, the
Guide extends words of hope and encouragement,
offers firsthand advice on what
parents should do and what they should
expect, and describes the steps that families
and law enforcement agencies may take
in seeking to find the missing child.
“Echoes of Survival” is, perhaps, the most
useful section of the Team H.O.P.E. site.
It provides parents of missing children—
many of whom may feel more comfortable
communicating through the
written word—a forum for sharing
their experiences.
Conclusion
Team H.O.P.E. regularly receives feedback
from participating families. As it enters its
third year of operation, Team H.O.P.E. is
analyzing referral data and feedback to better
assist the families it serves.
Team H.O.P.E. offers parents of missing
children encouragement, empowerment,
and support. It enables parents to share their
knowledge and thus help others. Families
of missing children are not the sole beneficiaries
of the support provided by Team
H.O.P.E. volunteers; law enforcement, social
services, and other agencies also have
gained valuable insight and assistance in
helping families of missing children.
In the collective experience of families
of missing children, society has a resource
that could positively influence the way
in which missing children cases are
handled. With the help of this experience,
policies and procedures regarding missing
24
Juvenile Justice
children have been strengthened. Examples
include the following:
u The Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against
Children and Sexually Violent Offender
Registration Act (42 U.S.C. § 14071
(1994)) encourages States to require individuals
convicted of criminal offenses
against minors, those convicted of sexually
violent offenses, and/or those identified
as sexually violent predators to
register their current addresses with a
State law enforcement agency.
u Jennifer’s Law (Pub. L. No. 106–177,
114 Stat. 35 (2000)) requires law enforcement
agencies to file complete
profiles of deceased unidentified persons
in the FBI’s NCIC unidentified persons
file, which can then be compared against
the more widely used missing persons file.
u An Executive Memorandum signed
by President Clinton in 1996 directs Federal
facilities to post missing person notices
in all Federal buildings.
u The Morgan Nick Plan is a cooperative
effort of 250 radio stations and law
enforcement in Arkansas in which participating
stations interrupt programming
to broadcast reports of missing
children.
All too often, parents of missing children
face numerous roadblocks to recovering
their children. Examples of such
obstacles include a disjointed system
response, poor communication between
agencies, authorities who treat family
abduction as a simple “domestic issue,”
and gaps in international border controls
that make it easier for abductors to
take children out of the country. Team
H.O.P.E. has collected ideas from volunteers
that can help families recover
from the crisis of a missing child and
break down barriers to ease the process
of recovery and reunification.
For Further Information
Association of Missing and Exploited
Children’s Organizations
781–878–3033
Child Protection Division
Office of Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention
202–616–3637
National Center for Missing and
Exploited Children
703–274–3900
800–THE–LOST
www.ncmec.org
National Runaway Switchboard
800–344–2785
www.nrscrisisline.org
Team H.O.P.E.
Public Administration Service
703–629–7148
800–306–6311
www.pashq.org
Notes
1. Team H.O.P.E. has received requests from parents
seeking help for their other children who
have been left behind and who are having a difficult
time coping. Sibling volunteers help by connecting
and sharing experiences with these
siblings of missing children.
2. The National Runaway Switchboard, a nonprofit
organization offering crisis intervention,
advocacy, and educational services, assists Team
H.O.P.E. with this training.
3. These data are current as of September 14,
2000. Some cases referred to Team H.O.P.E. involve
multiple children (e.g., one case involves
six missing children from the same family).
References
National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.
2000. 1999 Missing Children Statistics. Fact
Sheet. Alexandria, VA: National Center for
Missing and Exploited Children.
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
1998. When Your Child Is Missing: A Family
Survival Guide. Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department
of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office
of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Volume VII| Number 3 25
JUSTICE MATTERS
IN BRIEF
Parenting as Prevention
December 2000 marks the 2-year anniversary
of the U.S. Department of
Justice’s Children Exposed to Violence
Initiative (CEVI). In December 1998,
President Clinton launched CEVI to
address the needs of the Nation’s most
vulnerable crime victims and witnesses—
children. CEVI is dedicated to
improving the justice system’s approach
and community responses to
children exposed to violence. The initiative
originally consisted of four
components: justice system reform,
legislative reform, program support,
and community outreach.
Just this year, the U.S. Department of
Justice instituted a fifth component:
the Parenting Initiative for 2000. Children
are exposed to violence in their
communities, at school, and through
the media. The most direct and harmful
victimization, however, occurs
within the home. Although the number
of reported cases of child victimization
continues to decline, parents remain
the primary perpetrators of child
maltreatment. The scars are not only
physical; exposure to violence affects
how children think, feel, and learn.
Child victims are 53 percent more
likely to suffer repeat victimization
than not to be abused again, and they
are 38 percent more likely to become
juvenile and adult offenders than
youth who are not abused.1
CEVI is designed to help parents
find the support and tools they need
to raise safe, strong, and healthy
children. These tools are important
not just for at-risk families but for
all parents, grandparents, and other
adult caregivers involved in raising
the next generation.
CEVI will be implemented as a pilot
initiative in Washington, DC. In
collaboration with the Mayor’s Office,
the District’s Office of Maternal
and Child Health, the national
I Am Your Child Foundation, and
others, a CEVI working group will
coordinate the DC Parenting Initiative.
For a 3-year period, this initiative
will provide “new-parents kits”
to the parents of every baby born
in Washington, DC. The kits will
include:
u Videotapes on child development,
safety, discipline, childcare, health
and nutrition, and early literacy.
u Written materials on child
development.
u A guide to local and Federal
resources available to new parents.
u A voucher to “opt in” to free
nurse home visitation.
u A guide to the Coordinating
Council on Juvenile Justice and
Delinquency Prevention’s new
parenting Web site (see page 30).
u A “Passport to Child Development,”
which includes immunization
records, abuse and neglect
warning signs, and other valuable
information.
u A book to promote early literacy.
The kits will be distributed in
birthing hospitals, correctional
institutions, community health
clinics, and parenting centers.
Ultimately, the DC Parenting
Initiative will include a series of
forums held in parenting centers in
select wards of the city to foster
dialog between adolescents, young
parents, and community leaders.
1 Office for Victims of Crime. 1999. Breaking the
Cycle of Violence: Recommendations to Improve
the Criminal Justice Response to Child Victims and
Witnesses. Monograph. Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs,
Office for Victims of Crime.
Parents: The Anti-Drug
One of the most effective deterrents
to drug use among youth is their
parents. To get this message across,
the Office of National Drug Control
Policy (ONDCP), through its National
Youth Anti-Drug Media
Campaign, launched new national
advertising in fall 1999. The advertisements
target parents and other
adult caregivers, reminding them
that they are an important influence
in their children’s lives and that
they can make a difference in their
children’s decisionmaking.
The advertising focuses on five
basic values: truth, love, honesty,
communication, and trust. Parents
are urged to talk truthfully with
their children about drugs and to
26
JUSTICE MATTERS
IN BRIEF
maintain an open dialog with
them as they grow older. The advertising
sends consistent messages
in all media—print, billboards,
radio, and television—to reassure
parents that they can positively
affect their children’s decisions
regarding drugs by:
u Spending time with them.
u Listening to them genuinely.
u Asking them what they think.
u Giving them clear, consistent
rules to follow.
u Praising and rewarding them for
good behavior.
u Telling them they are loved.
u Encouraging them to participate
in extracurricular activities.
u Being involved in their lives.
The advertising’s unique design—
each of the five values is leveraged
against a single idea (“The Anti-
Drug”) in all media—resulted from a
national study of parents, teens, and
children. Researchers talked with
parents and youth about their attitudes
toward drugs, peer pressure,
and family dynamics and found that
many parents are uncertain of their
importance in their children’s lives.
The findings led the ONDCP campaign
to designate the five basic values
as tools that parents can use in
raising their children to be drug free.
The campaign also created a Web
site (theantidrug.com) and set up a
toll-free number (800–788–2800) to
provide parents with more information.
The Web site gives parents
and caregivers strategies and tips
and offers suggestions on how to
address sensitive subjects such as a
parent’s personal history with drugs.
The Web site is available in Cambodian,
Chinese, English, Korean,
Spanish, and Vietnamese.
For more information, visit the
National Youth Anti-Drug
Media Campaign’s Web site at
www.mediacampaign.org/ or the
Partnership for a Drug-Free America’s
Web site at www.drugfreeamerica.org/.
Call for Materials
The role of parents and families in addressing juvenile crime is a
growing topic of interest to parents, professionals, and researchers in
the juvenile justice system. OJJDP wants to assist you and your colleagues
in learning about the topic via publications and other information
resources. OJJDP’s Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse and the
National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) offer an extensive
library collection covering all aspects of criminal and juvenile
justice and drug policy. Contribute to the NCJRS library and
abstracts database (www.ncjrs.org/database.htm) by sending material
related to the topic of how parents and families address juvenile
crime. Contributions should be a minimum of four pages in length
and must have been published within the past 5 years. Materials will
be reviewed to determine eligibility, and they cannot be returned.
Send materials or information to:
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
Attn: Patricia Cronin, Collection Development
2277 Research Boulevard, MS 2A
Rockville, MD 20850
IN BRIEF
Volume VII| Number 3 27
America’s Children: Key
National Indicators of Well-Being
America’s
Children:
Key National
Indicators of
Well-Being
2000, prepared
by the
Federal
Interagency
Forum on
Child and Family Statistics, illustrates
the condition and progress of
the Nation’s youth over time. The
first section of this fourth annual
report, “Population and Family
Characteristics,” presents eight
key demographic measures that describe
the changing population,
family characteristics, and context
in which children are living. For
example, the number of Hispanic
children increased from 9 percent
in 1980 to 16 percent in 1999; the
percentage of children living with
one parent increased from 20 percent
in 1980 to 27 percent in 1999;
and the percentage of children
(birth through third grade) who received
regular childcare increased
from 51 percent in 1995 to 54 percent
in 1999.
The second section, “Indicators of
Children’s Well-Being,” presents
23 key indicators that are drawn
from the most recent and reliable
Federal statistics and fall under the
subsections Economic Security,
Health, Behavior and Social Environment,
and Education. Significant
findings include the following:
u The percentage of children who
live in households with housing problems
(e.g., crowded or inadequate
housing) increased from 30 percent
in 1978 to 36 percent in 1997.
u The percentage of children born
with low birth weight has increased
steadily since 1984.
u The birthrate for adolescents
dropped by more than one-fifth
between 1991 and 1998.
u The percentage of children ages
3 to 5 who are read to daily by a
family member decreased from 57
percent in 1996 to 53 percent in
1999.
The report shows that the rate of
serious violent crimes committed
by young people was the lowest recorded
rate since National Crime
Victimization Survey data were
first collected in 1973. Upon release
of this interagency report,
John J. Wilson, Acting Administrator
of OJJDP—one of the
forum’s member agencies—stated:
The dramatic and sustained
drop in youth violence
provides continuing evidence
that the dire predictions of a
coming wave of juvenile violence
were wrong. It also gives
us considerable reason to believe
that through comprehensive
and coordinated efforts at
the Federal, State and local
levels, we are making a difference
for our young people,
their families and their communities.
However, we must
continue to support prevention
and early intervention
programs that work if we are to
continue to reduce juvenile
violence.1
The report is available online at the
forum’s Web site, www.childstats.gov;
through the National Maternal and
Child Health Clearinghouse, 2070
Chain Bridge Road, Suite 450,
Vienna, VA 22182, 703–356–1964;
or through the Juvenile Justice
Clearinghouse (ask for NCJ 182680),
P.O. Box 6000, Rockville MD
20849–6000, 800–638–8736.
1 Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention. 2000. OJJDP Acting Administrator
John J. Wilson Statement on Child Well-
Being Indicators Report. Office of Justice
Programs News. Press release. Washington,
DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of
Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice
and Delinquency Prevention.
IN BRIEF
28
Family Strengthening Series
When Your Child Is Missing: A Family
Survival Guide
Now available in Spanish!
OJJDP has
published a
Spanish translation
of When
Your Child Is
Missing: A
Family Survival
Guide (Cuando
su Niño
desaparece: Una guía para la supervivencia
de la familia).
The crisis of a missing child calls on
every ounce of courage and determination
that parents and other family
members can muster. The search for
a missing child demands a timely
and coordinated response by parents
and law enforcement alike. OJJDP
published the Guide to provide parents
and other family members with
the critical information, guidance,
and tools they need to work with
law enforcement agencies in finding
their missing child.
Written by parents who have experienced
the trauma of having a missing
child, the Guide provides
firsthand insights into what parents
should do and what they should expect
and offers hope and encouragement.
The Guide describes the steps
that families and law enforcement
take as they forge a constructive
partnership. The introduction provides
parents with a 48-hour checklist
to guide them in the crucial steps
to take when they first discover their
child is missing. Subsequent chapters
explain both the short- and longterm
issues of topics such as searching
for the missing child; working
with law enforcement, the media,
and volunteers; distributing photos
and fliers; providing rewards and
seeking donations; and emphasizing
personal and family considerations.
The chapters also contain checklists
and key points for later reference.
The English and Spanish versions
of When Your Child Is Missing: A Family
Survival Guide are available from
the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
(see the order form). The Guide and
other resources related to missing and
exploited children also are available
online at www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org/missing/
pubs.html.
Family Strengthening Series
The Bulletins in
OJJDP’s Family
Strengthening Series
discuss the effectiveness
of family
intervention programs,
examine specific methods for
improving family interactions and
reducing delinquency, and highlight
successful programs and current research.
The following publications
are available through OJJDP’s Juvenile
Justice Clearinghouse (see the
order form); additional Bulletins in
this series are forthcoming:
u Brief Strategic Family Therapy
(April 2000).
u Competency Training: The Strengthening
Families Program: For Parents and
Youth 10–14 (August 2000).
u Effective Family Strengthening
Interventions (November 1998).
u Families and Schools Together:
Building Relationships (November
1999).
u Family Skills Training for Parents
and Children (April 2000).
u The Incredible Years Training
Series (July 2000).
u The Nurturing Parenting Programs
(November 2000).
u Parents AnonymousSM: Strengthening
Families (April 1999).
u Preparing for the Drug Free Years
(July 1999).
u Preventing Violence the Problem-
Solving Way (April 1999).
u Treatment Foster Care (December
1998).
IN BRIEF
Volume VII| Number 3 29
Youth in Action Series
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional
Lives of Boys
work consists of youth leaders from
across the Nation who are sponsored
by youth-serving organizations.
The network empowers youth
to have a positive, formidable impact
in their communities.
The Bulletins and Fact Sheets in
OJJDP’s Youth in Action Series
promote activities such as planning
community programs, creating publications,
making presentations, and
working with the media. Youth programs
described in these publications
include peer mentoring, community
cleanup, youth and senior
citizen collaboration, conflict resolution,
and drug prevention
projects.
The Youth in Action series is available
through OJJDP’s Web site at
www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org or by calling
the Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse
at 800–638–8736.
In Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional
Lives of Boys, Drs. Dan
Kindlon and Michael Thompson
describe how young boys often develop
into silent and angry men
who keep their emotions in check
because they live in a culture that
depicts manliness as requiring
merely stoicism and strength. The
authors found that many boys suppress
their emotions because of their
ideas about how boys and men
should think and act. Kindlon, a
clinical and research psychologist
specializing in the behavioral problems
of youth, and Thompson, a
child and family psychologist, have
worked with emotionally isolated
boys who channeled their sadness
into contempt for others and selfhate,
hid their fear through excessive
drinking, or shied away from
bonding with others. The authors’
discussion revolves around the following
question: How can boys be
helped to become emotionally
whole men?
Kindlon and Thompson describe
how the culture steers boys away
from expressing themselves emotionally.
They examine what young
boys struggle with during early
education, the cost of the harsh
discipline some boys receive, the
cruelty many see in boys, and the
relationships between fathers and
sons and mothers and sons. Chapters
are devoted to the nature of
boys’ solitude; the battle with depression
and suicide that some boys
go through; their bouts with substance
abuse, which often are attempts
to fill an emotional void;
their relationships with girls; and
their proclivity toward anger and
violence. The book, which was published
by Ballantine Publishing
Group (ISBN 0–345–43485–4),
concludes by attempting to answer
the question of what boys need to
help them grow emotionally.
Parents looking
for help in
raising their
children to be
confident and
contributing members
of society can steer them toward
OJJDP’s Youth in Action
series of publications, which were
written by youth involved with the
National Youth Network. Founded
and managed by OJJDP, the netIN
BRIEF
30
The Parenting Resources for the 21st Century online guide
(www.parentingresources.ncjrs.org) is an initiative of the
Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Prevention (the Council). As part of their ongoing
efforts to promote a national agenda for children,
foster positive youth development, and reduce violence
and serious delinquency, the Council’s participating Federal
agencies and offices—the U.S. Departments of Justice,
Education, Health and
Human Services, Housing
and Urban Development,
and Labor; the
Immigration and Naturalization
Service; the
Office of National Drug
Control Policy; the Corporation
for National
Service; and OJJDP—
have joined forces to
create this Web site. The
site links parents and
other caregivers with the
information they need to
meet the challenges of
parenting today.
The site covers the full
spectrum of parenting—from locating childcare to getting
substance abuse treatment to finding information on college
scholarships. The site links users with material on
various topics such as infant development, organized
sports, domestic violence, the Family and Medical Leave
Act, nutrition, volunteer activities, learning disabilities,
and mental health. The site also directs users to information
on recent research and statistics, new publications,
upcoming conferences, and other valuable resources. The
site’s six main pages, each linked to useful Web sites and
other resources related to parenting, are described below.
u Child and Youth Development has three subpages—
Developmental Phases, Gender Issues, and Resources—
that are linked to Web sites related to growth and
development from birth through young adulthood.
u Child Care and Education guides users to information
about the care and education of children, from developmentally
appropriate practices for very young children
through developmentally appropriate practices for young
adults in college. Information on home schooling and
standardized testing is also found here.
u Family Concerns focuses on issues such as eating
disorders, underage drinking, gang activity, and sexual
exploitation and includes
16 subpages.
u Family Dynamics directs
users to information
on how family members
relate to and interact with
one another. Specific topics
addressed include different
types of family
relationships (e.g., singleparent,
two-parent, and
multigenerational families),
special circumstances
(e.g., the incarceration of
a family member), and
work and family issues
(e.g., alternative work
schedules and childcare).
u Health and Safety includes six subpages: Child
Health, Family Health, Child Safety, Family Safety,
Special Circumstances, and Resources.
u Out-of-School Activities focuses on afterschool
activities for children and adolescents. The page
includes 10 subpages that offer links to information
about a wide range of activities both at home and
in the community, including sports, arts, and
employment.
The Parenting Resources Web site currently links visitors
to more than 500 related Web sites; over the next
year, hundreds of additional links will be added. E-mail
your suggestions to parentingresources@ncjrs.org.
OJJDP ONLINE
Parenting Resources
Juvenile Justice Order Form
Volume VII| Number 3 December 2000
International Subscribers
Airmail Postage Schedule
All documents ordered by Canadian and other international users
are sent airmail. Postage is included in the cost of fee items but
must be paid separately for free items. Use the schedule below
to compute the postage cost for your free items.
No. of free items Canada Other countries
1–2 $ 6.30 $ 5.75
3–4 6.85 11.50
5–6 7.40 17.25
7–8 7.95 23.00
9–10 8.50 28.75
11–12 9.05 34.50
13–14 9.60 40.25
15–16 10.20 46.00
17–18 10.80 51.75
19–20 11.30 57.50
For more than 20 items, write JJC, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD
20849–6000, or call 301–519–5500.
To order other publications listed on the inside back
cover, please complete the following:
Qty. NCJ No. Title Price
____________________________________________
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All payments must be in U.S. dollars and drawn on
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$
PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FREE.
Single copies are available free. There is a nominal fee for
bulk orders to cover postage and handling. Contact the
Clearinghouse for specific information.
q NEW Brief Strategic Family Therapy (Bulletin).
NCJ 179285.
q NEW Competency Training: The Strengthening Families
Program: For Parents and Youth 10–14 (Bulletin).
NCJ 182208.
q Cuando su Niño desaparece: Una guía para la
supervivencia de la familia (Report). NCJ 178902.
q Effective Family Strengthening Interventions (Bulletin).
NCJ 171121.
q Families and Schools Together: Building Relationships
(Bulletin). NCJ 173423.
q NEW Family Skills Training for Parents and Children
(Bulletin). NCJ 180140.
q NEW The Incredible Years Training Series (Bulletin).
NCJ 173422.
q NEW The Nurturing Parenting Programs (Bulletin).
NCJ 172848.
q Parents AnonymousSM: Strengthening Families
(Bulletin). NCJ 171120.
q Prenatal and Early Childhood Nurse Home Visitation
(Bulletin). NCJ 172875.
q Preparing for the Drug Free Years (Bulletin).
NCJ 173408.
q Preventing Violence the Problem-Solving Way (Bulletin).
NCJ 172847.
q Treating Serious Anti-Social Behavior in Youth: The
MST Approach (Bulletin). NCJ 165151.
q Treatment Foster Care (Bulletin). NCJ 173421.
q When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival Guide
(Report). NCJ 170022.
PUBLICATIONS AVAILABLE FOR A FEE.
q Online Safety for Children: A Primer for Parents and
Teachers (Teleconference Video, VHS format).
NCJ 178996. $17 (U.S.), $21 (Canada and other
countries).
q NEW How Shall We Respond to the Dreams of Youth?
(Teleconference Video, VHS format). NCJ 182438.
$17 (U.S.), $21 (Canada and other countries).
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Fee orders are shipped UPS. Because UPS cannot deliver to post office boxes,
please provide a street address for shipment of orders requiring payment.
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q Check this box
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Publications From OJJDP
OJJDP produces a wide variety of materials,
including Bulletins, Fact Sheets, Reports, Summaries,
videotapes, CD–ROM’s, and the Juvenile
Justice journal. These materials and other
resources are available through OJJDP’s Juvenile
Justice Clearinghouse (JJC), as described
at the end of this list.
The following list of publications highlights the
latest and most popular information published
by OJJDP, grouped by topical areas:
Corrections and Detention
Construction, Operations, and Staff Training
for Juvenile Confinement Facilities. 2000,
NCJ 178928 (28 pp.).
Disproportionate Minority Confinement: 1997
Update. 1998, NCJ 170606 (12 pp.).
Implementation of the Intensive Community-
Based Aftercare Program. 2000, NCJ 181464
(20 pp.).
Juvenile Arrests 1999. 2000, NCJ 185236
(12 pp.).
Reintegration, Supervised Release, and Intensive
Aftercare. 1999, NCJ 175715 (24 pp.).
State Custody Rates, 1997. 2000, NCJ 183108
(4 pp.).
Courts
Employment and Training for Court-Involved
Youth. 2000, NCJ 182787 (112 pp.).
Focus on Accountability: Best Practices
for Juvenile Court and Probation. 1999,
NCJ 177611 (12 pp.).
From the Courthouse to the Schoolhouse:
Making Successful Transitions. 2000,
NCJ 178900 (16 pp.).
Juvenile Court Statistics 1997. 2000,
NCJ 180864 (120 pp.).
Juvenile Justice (Juvenile Court Issue), Volume
VI, Number 2. 1999, NCJ 178255 (40 pp.).
Juveniles and the Death Penalty. 2000,
NCJ 184748 (16 pp.).
Juvenile Transfers to Criminal Court in the
1990’s: Lessons Learned From Four Studies.
2000, NCJ 181301 (68 pp.).
Juveniles Facing Criminal Sanctions: Three
States That Changed the Rules. 2000,
NCJ 181203 (66 pp.).
Offenders in Juvenile Court, 1997. 2000,
NCJ 181204 (16 pp.).
Teen Courts: A Focus on Research. 2000,
NCJ 183472 (16 pp.).
Delinquency Prevention
1999 Report to Congress: Title V Incentive
Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention
Programs. 2000, NCJ 182677 (60 pp.).
Competency Training—The Strengthening
Families Program: For Parents and Youth
10–14. 2000, NCJ 182208 (12 pp.).
Comprehensive Responses to Youth at Risk:
Interim Findings From the SafeFutures Initiative.
2000. NCJ 183841 (96 pp.).
Co-occurrence of Delinquency and Other Problem
Behaviors. 2000, NCJ 182211 (8 pp.).
High/Scope Perry Preschool Project. 2000,
NCJ 181725 (8 pp.).
The Incredible Years Training Series. 2000,
NCJ 173422 (24 pp.).
Juvenile Mentoring Program: A Progress
Review. 2000, NCJ 182209 (8 pp.).
Law Enforcement Referral of At-Risk Youth:
The SHIELD Program. 2000, NCJ 184579
(8 pp.).
The Nurturing Parenting Programs. 2000,
NCJ 172848 (12 pp.).
Prevention of Serious and Violent Juvenile
Offending. 2000, NCJ 178898 (16 pp.).
Gangs
1998 National Youth Gang Survey. 2000,
NCJ 183109 (92 pp.).
Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement.
2000, NCJ 182210 (12 pp.).
Youth Gang Programs and Strategies. 2000,
NCJ 171154 (96 pp.).
The Youth Gangs, Drugs, and Violence
Connection. 1999, NCJ 171152 (12 pp.).
Youth Gangs in Schools. 2000, NCJ 183015
(8 pp.).
General Juvenile Justice
The Community Assessment Center Concept.
2000, NCJ 178942 (12 pp.).
Increasing School Safety Through Juvenile
Accountability Programs. 2000, NCJ 179283
(16 pp.).
Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants
Strategic Planning Guide. 1999, NCJ 172846
(62 pp.).
Juvenile Justice (Mental Health Issue), Volume
VII, Number 1. 2000, NCJ 178256 (40 pp.).
Juvenile Justice. (American Indian Issue). Volume
VII, Number 2. 2000, NCJ 184747 (40 pp.).
Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 1999 National
Report. 1999, NCJ 178257 (232 pp.). Also
available on CD–ROM. 2000, NCJ 178991.
OJJDP Research: Making a Difference for
Juveniles. 1999, NCJ 177602 (52 pp.).
Special Education and the Juvenile Justice
System. 2000, NCJ 179359 (16 pp.).
Teenage Fatherhood and Delinquent Behavior.
2000, NCJ 178899 (8 pp.).
Missing and Exploited Children
Kidnaping of Juveniles: Patterns From NIBRS.
2000, NCJ 181161 (8 pp.).
Overview of the Portable Guides to Investigating
Child Abuse: Update 2000. 2000,
NCJ 178893 (12 pp.).
Parents AnonymousSM: Strengthening America’s
Families. 1999, NCJ 171120 (12 pp.).
When Your Child Is Missing: A Family Survival
Guide. 1998, NCJ 170022 (96 pp.). Also available
in Spanish. 2000, NCJ 178902.
Substance Abuse
The Coach’s Playbook Against Drugs. 1998,
NCJ 173393 (20 pp.).
Developing a Policy for Controlled Substance
Testing of Juveniles. 2000, NCJ 178896 (12 pp.).
Family Skills Training for Parents and Children.
2000, NCJ 180140 (12 pp.).
Violence and Victimization
Characteristics of Crimes Against Juveniles.
2000, NCJ 179034 (12 pp.).
Children as Victims. 2000, NCJ 180753 (24 pp.).
The Comprehensive Strategy: Lessons Learned
From the Pilot Sites. 2000, NCJ 178258 (12 pp.).
Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. 2000,
NCJ 182679 (12 pp.).
Kids and Guns. 2000, NCJ 178994 (12 pp.).
Predictors of Youth Violence. 2000,
NCJ 179065 (12 pp.).
Promising Strategies To Reduce Gun Violence.
1999, NCJ 173950 (276 pp.).
Race, Ethnicity, and Serious and Violent Juvenile
Offending. 2000, NCJ 181202 (8 pp.).
Safe From the Start: Taking Action on Children
Exposed to Violence. 2000, NCJ 182789
(76 pp.).
The materials listed on this page and many
other OJJDP publications and resources can
be accessed through the following methods:
Online:
To view or download materials, visit
OJJDP’s home page: www.ojjdp.ncjrs.org.
To order materials online, visit JJC’s 24-
hour online store: www.puborder.ncjrs.org.
To ask questions about materials, e-mail
JJC: askncjrs@ncjrs.org.
To subscribe to JUVJUST, OJJDP’s electronic
mailing list, e-mail to listproc@ncjrs.org,
leave the subject line blank, and type subscribe
juvjust your name.
Phone:
800–638–8736
(Monday–Friday, 8:30 a.m.–7 p.m. ET)
Fax:
410–792–4358 (to order publications)
301–519–5600 (to ask questions)
800–638–8736 (fax-on-demand, Fact
Sheets and Bulletins only)
Mail:
Juvenile Justice Clearinghouse/NCJRS
P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849–6000
JJC, through the National Criminal Justice
Reference Service (NCJRS), is the repository
for tens of thousands of criminal
and juvenile justice publications and resources
from around the world. An abstract
for each publication or resource is
placed in a database that you can search
online: www.ncjrs.org/database.htm.
Revised 12/4/00
NCJ 184746
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Penalty for Private Use $300
The NCJRS Web Site:
Relevant, Reliable, Timely
NCJRS has updated its Web site.
Navigating the site is clear and easy, specialized
subtopics enable quick access to the information you
want, and the new “Hot Topics” area offers
comprehensive resources for indepth
information at the click of a button.
Visit the NCJRS Web site at www.ncjrs.org.


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