We the People

Terrance J. Reeves
December 1, 2004

This report provides a portrait of
the Asian population in the United
States and discusses the eleven
largest detailed Asian groups at
the national level, for example:
Asian Indian, Cambodian, and
Japanese.1 It is part of the Census
2000 Special Reports series that
presents several demographic,
social, and economic characteristics
collected from Census 2000.
The Asian population is not homogeneous.
It includes many groups
who differ in language, culture,
and length of residence in the
United States. Some Asian groups,
such as the Chinese and Japanese,
have been represented in the
United States for several generations.
Other groups, such as the
Hmong, Vietnamese, Laotians, and
Cambodians, tend to be comparatively
recent immigrants.
Of the total United States population,
11.9 million people, or
4.2 percent, reported they were
Asian. This number included
10.2 million people, or 3.6 percent,
who reported only Asian and
1.7 million people, or 0.6 percent,
who reported Asian and at least one
other race. Table 1 shows the
number of people reporting a single
race from among the detailed Asian
groups and a tally of the number of
times the group was reported.2
Census 2000 reported on six major
race categories: White, Black or
African American, American Indian
or Alaska Native, Asian, Native
Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander,
and Some Other Race.3 The term
We the People:
Asians in the United States
Table 1.
Asian Population by Detailed Group: 2000
(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling
error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Detailed group
Detailed Asian
group alone
Detailed Asian group alone
or in combination
Number
Percent of U.S.
population Number
Percent of U.S.
population
Total . . . . . . . . . . . 110,171,820 3.61 211,859,446 4.21
Asian Indian . . . . . . . . . 1,645,510 0.58 1,855,590 0.66
Cambodian . . . . . . . . . . 178,043 0.06 212,633 0.08
Chinese . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,422,970 0.86 2,858,291 1.02
Filipino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,864,120 0.66 2,385,216 0.85
Hmong. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170,049 0.06 184,842 0.07
Japanese. . . . . . . . . . . . 795,051 0.28 1,152,324 0.41
Korean. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,072,682 0.38 1,226,825 0.44
Laotian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167,792 0.06 196,893 0.07
Pakistani . . . . . . . . . . . . 155,909 0.06 209,273 0.07
Thai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110,851 0.04 150,093 0.05
Vietnamese. . . . . . . . . . 1,110,207 0.39 1,212,465 0.43
Other Asian. . . . . . . . . . 3478,636 0.17 4561,485 0.20
1 Includes people who reported Asian only, regardless of whether they reported one or more detailed
Asian groups.
2 Includes people who reported one detailed Asian group, people who reported two or more detailed
Asian groups, and people who reported one or more races other than Asian. The total is less than the
sum of the rows because most people who reported two or more detailed Asian groups, such as Korean
and Filipino, are tabulated once in each category, but only once in the total. People who reported two or
more detailed Asian groups not listed above (e.g., Indonesian and Malaysian) are tabulated once in the
??Other Asian?? category.
3 Includes people who reported one Asian group not listed above and people who reported two or
more Asian groups (and no other race), as well as people who checked only the ??Other Asian?? response
category on the census questionnaire or wrote in a generic term such as ??Asian or Asiatic.??
4 Represents the number of people who reported one or more Asian groups excluding the groups
listed above. The total of 561,465 includes 254,817 people who reported an Asian group not listed
above (e.g., Bangladeshi), 32,308 people who reported two or more Asian groups not listed above (e.g.,
Indonesian and Malaysian), 261,237 people who reported an Asian group not listed above and one or
more races other than Asian (e.g., Nepalese and White), and 13,123 people who reported two or more
Asian groups not listed above and one or more races other than Asian (e.g., Indonesian and Sri Lankan
and Black).
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
1 The text of this report discusses data
for the United States, including the 50 states
and the District of Columbia.
2 The data contained in this report are
based on the sample of households who
responded to the Census 2000 long form.
As with all surveys, estimates may vary from
the actual values because of sampling variation
or other factors. All comparisons made
in this report have undergone statistical testing
and are significant at the 90-percent confidence
level unless otherwise noted.
3 The Census 2000 question on race
included 15 separate response categories and
three areas where respondents could write in
a more specific race group. The response categories
and write-in answers can be combined
to create the five Office of Management
and Budget (OMB) race categories plus Some
Other Race. In addition to White, Black or
African American, American Indian and Alaska
Native, and Some Other Race, seven of the 15
response categories are Asian and four are
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander.
Asian refers to people having
origins in any of the original
peoples of the Far East, Southeast
Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.
Asian groups are not limited to
nationalities but include ethnic
terms as well, such as Hmong.
The analysis in this report pertains
to the 11 Asian groups listed
below and the residual category
Other Asian.4 Each of these groups
compose at least 1 percent of the
total Asian population.
Asian Indian Korean
Cambodian Laotian
Chinese Pakistani
Filipino Thai
Hmong Vietnamese
Japanese
The data collected by Census 2000
on race can be divided into two
broad categories: people who
reported only one race and people
who reported more than one of the
six major race categories. People
who responded to the question on
race by indicating only one race
are referred to as the single-race
population. For example, respondents
who reported their race as
one or more detailed Asian groups,
but no non-Asian race, would be
included in the single-race Asian
population, which is identified as
Asian alone in tables in this
report.5 Individuals who reported
a specified race and one or more
other major races are referred to
as the race in-combination population.
For example, respondents
who reported they were Asian and
Black or African American, or Asian
and White and American Indian
2 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
The federal government considers
race and Hispanic origin to be
two separate and distinct concepts.
For Census 2000, the
questions on race and Hispanic
origin were asked of every individual
living in the United States
and answers were based on selfidentification.
Data on race have been collected
since the first U.S. decennial census
in 1790. The question on
race on Census 2000 was different
from the one on the 1990
census in several ways. Most
significantly, in 2000, respondents
could select one or more
race categories to indicate their
racial identities. Additionally, the
1990 "Asian or Pacific Islander"
category was separated into two
categories, "Asian" and "Native
Hawaiian or Other Pacific
Islander."* Because of these
changes, the Census 2000 data
on race are not directly comparable
with data from the 1990 census
or earlier censuses. Caution
must be used when interpreting
changes in the racial composition
of the U.S. population over time.
Because Hispanics or Latinos may
be of any race, data in this report
for Asians overlap slightly with
data for Hispanics. Data for
Asians include Hispanic Asians,
who composed approximately
1.0 percent of the Asian population.
The question on Hispanic
origin for Census 2000 was similar
to the 1990 census question,
except for its placement on the
questionnaire and a few wording
changes. For Census 2000, the
question on Hispanic origin was
asked directly before the question
on race. For the 1990 census,
the question on race preceded
questions on age and marital
status, which were followed by
the question on Hispanic origin.
Additionally, in Census 2000, a
note was included on the questionnaire
asking respondents to
complete both the question on
Hispanic origin and the question
on race.
Understanding Data On Race and Hispanic Origin From Census 2000
* A more detailed discussion of these
changes is provided in Elizabeth M. Grieco
and Rachel C. Cassidy, 2001, Overview of
Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000, U.S.
Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief,
C2KBR/01-1. This report is available on
the U.S. Census Bureau's Internet site at
/c2kbr01-1.pdf>.
4 The ?Other Asian? group includes
respondents who provided a specific entry
that was not one of the eleven detailed
groups, such as Bhutanese, Burmese,
Indonesian, Sri Lankan, and so forth, as well
as those respondents who checked the
?Other Asian? response category on the census
questionnaire or wrote in a generic term
such as ?Asian? or ?Asiatic.? This group
includes multiple responses involving two or
more detailed Asian groups and no other
race groups.
5 Respondents reporting a single detailed
Asian group, such as ?Korean? or ?Filipino,?
would be included in the Asian alone population
in the tables. Respondents reporting
more than one detailed Asian group, such as
?Chinese and Japanese? or ?Asian Indian and
Chinese and Vietnamese? would also be
included in the Asian alone population and
tabulated here as ?Other Asian.? This is
because all of the detailed groups in these
example combinations are part of the larger
Asian race category.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 3
and Alaska Native, would be
included in the Asian incombination
population.6
In the text and figures of this
report, population characteristics
are shown for Asian groups who
reported only that group. However,
this does not imply that it is the
preferred method of presenting or
analyzing data. The Census Bureau
uses a variety of approaches.
Table 2 summarizes characteristics
for single-race Asians and for
Asians who reported two or more
races, and people who reported
they were Asian regardless of
whether they also reported another
race. Data for the Asian single-race
population, the Asian population
regardless of whether they reported
any other races, and the detailed
Asian groups are available in
Summary File 4, /prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf>.
Two companion reports provide
more information on these concepts
and populations. The
Census 2000 Brief The Asian
Population: 2000 analyzes population
data collected from the short
form questions in Census 2000. It
shows the distribution of the Asian
population at both the national and
subnational levels and of detailed
Asian groups at the national level.7
In addition, the Census 2000 Brief
Overview of Race and Hispanic
Origin: 2000 provides a complete
explanation of the race categories
used in Census 2000 and information
on each of the six major race
groups and the Hispanic-origin
population at the national level.
7 Jessica S. Barnes and Claudette E.
Bennett, 2002, The Asian Population: 2000,
U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief,
C2KBR/01-16. This report is available on the
U.S. Census Bureau?s Internet site at
/c2kbr01-16.pdf>.
6 The race-in-combination categories use
the conjunction and in bold and italicized
print to link the race groups that compose
the combination.
4 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Five detailed Asian groups
had over one million people.| Census 2000 found that, among
10 million Asians in the United
States, five groups numbered
one million or more: Asian
Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
and Vietnamese. Together these
groups made up about 80 percent
of the Asian population.
Chinese was the largest group
and represented about 24 percent
of the Asian population,
followed by Filipino, Asian
Indian, Vietnamese, and Korean.| Six other detailed Asian groups
together accounted for about
15 percent of the Asian
population: Japanese,
Cambodian, Hmong, Laotian,
Pakistani, and Thai.| The remaining Asian groups
(categorized as Other Asian)
accounted for about 5 percent
of the Asian population.
Figure 1.
Asian Population by Detailed Group: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality
protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
4.7
23.8
18.3
16.2
10.9
10.5
7.8
1.8
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.1
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 5| For each of the age groups
between 0 and 14 years, higher
proportions of both boys and
girls were found in the total
population than in the Asian
population. At the older ages
(55 and over), men composed
9 percent and women 12 percent
of the total population,
compared with 7 percent and
8 percent, respectively, of the
Asian population.| However, the Asian population
had proportionally more men
and women than the total population
in the young adult age
group (20 to 39 years).
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0 to 4
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 to 54
55 to 59
60 to 64
65 to 69
70 to 74
75 to 79
80 to 84
85 +
Figure 2.
Age and Sex: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 4.
Percent
Male Female
Age
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality
protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Total population
Asian
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
The Asian population had fewer people in the younger and
older age groupings than did the total U.S. population.
6 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau| Asians had a median age of
33 years in 2000, 2 years
younger than the national
median of 35 years. By far,
Japanese was the oldest of the
detailed Asian groups, with a
median age of nearly 43 years,
and Hmong was the youngest
with a median age of 16 years.| Among the detailed Asian
groups, 55 percent of the
Hmong population, but less
than 16 percent of the Japanese
and Thai populations, were
under 18. Over 80 percent of
Thai were between the ages of
18 and 64, in contrast with
42 percent of Hmong.| About 8 percent of Asians were
aged 65 and over, compared
with 12 percent of the total population.
In each of the detailed
Asian groups, except Chinese,
Filipino, and Japanese, less than
8 percent of the population was
65 and older. Japanese had the
highest proportion at 20 percent.
Figure 3.
Selected Age Groups and Median Age: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Under 18 18 to 64 65 and older Median age
(years)
3.7
25.6 61.9 12.4
23.9 68.4 7.7
21.4 69.1 9.6
22.1 69.1 8.7
24.8 71.4 3.8
26.9 68.1 5.0
24.3 69.6 6.2
12.1 67.5 20.4
38.6 57.6 3.8
55.2 42.2 2.6
34.4 62.1 3.4
32.8 64.2 3.0
15.3 82.2 2.5
31.6 64.6 27.4
35.4
33.0
35.5
35.5
30.3
30.5
32.7
42.6
23.8
16.3
26.1
28.7
34.7
Asians had a lower median age than the total population.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 7| Sixty percent of all Asians
were married, compared with
54 percent of the total population.
Asians were less likely
than the total population to be
separated, widowed, or
divorced: less than 10 percent,
compared with 19 percent for
the total population.| Among the detailed Asian
groups, 67 percent of Asian
Indians and Pakistanis were
married. Less than one-half of
all Cambodians were married.
Between 35 percent and 39 percent
of Cambodians, Hmong,
Laotians, Thai, and Vietnamese
had never married at the time of
the census.| Between 10 percent and
15 percent of all Cambodians,
Filipinos, Koreans, Laotians,
and Thai were separated,
widowed, or divorced, with
about 15 percent of Japanese
in these categories.
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
4.4
27.1 54.4 2.2 6.6 9.7
30.0 60.2 1.3 4.3 4.2
28.7 62.2 1.0 4.4 3.8
29.0 58.8 1.9 5.1 5.2
26.7 67.4 0.9 2.6 2.4
35.6 54.9 1.7 3.7 4.1
30.5 59.6 1.2 4.2 4.6
27.1 58.1 1.0 7.1 6.7
38.9 48.7 2.8 5.7 3.8
36.4 55.2 1.9 4.1 2.3
36.5 53.1 2.3 3.8 4.4
27.4 67.0 0.9 2.7 2.1
35.2 53.0 1.7 2.6 7.4
37.3 54.2 1.5 2.7
Figure 4.
Marital Status: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent distribution of population 15 and older. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection,
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Never married Married Widowed Separated Divorced
15 and older
About 60 percent of all Asians were married, somewhat higher
than the proportion for the total population.
8 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau| In 2000, over 60 percent of
Asian households were maintained
by married couples, compared
with 53 percent of households
in the total population.8
More than 70 percent of Asian
Indian, Hmong, and Pakistani
households were married-couple
families.| Among all detailed Asian
groups, Asian Indian and
Pakistani had the lowest proportions
of female-householder
families with no husband
present (3.8 percent and
3.6 percent, respectively) and
Cambodian had the highest proportion
(21 percent).| The average Asian household
had about three members
in 2000.| About 90 percent of Hmong and
Cambodian households were
family households. The highest
proportion of nonfamily households
occurred for Japanese
(41 percent).
Figure 5.
Household Type and Average Household Size: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total
households
(Percent distribution of households. Households are classified by the race of the householder. Data based on sample.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions,
see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Married couple Female householder,
no spouse present
Nonfamily
households
Male householder,
no spouse present
29.0
52.5 11.8 4.1 31.5
61.8 8.8 4.5 24.9
61.5 7.7 4.2 26.6
61.7 13.6 4.8 20.0
70.7 3.8 3.4 22.1
64.0 11.9 8.0 16.0
59.4 9.2 3.5 27.9
48.7 7.5 2.9 40.9
61.4 21.5 7.7 9.4
78.1 10.5 5.4 6.0
66.6 12.2 9.8 11.4
76.0 3.6 6.2 14.2
44.3 12.7 5.3 37.7
56.8 8.7 5.5
Family households
Average
household
size
2.59
3.08
2.90
3.41
3.06
3.70
2.76
2.25
4.41
6.14
4.23
3.80
2.64
3.12
8 The householder is the person (or one
of the people) in whose name the home is
owned or rented. If the home is owned or
rented jointly (for example, by a married
couple), either person may be the householder;
this designation is assigned to
whichever of these names the respondent
lists first. The number of householders,
therefore, is equal to the number of households.
This report uses the characteristics of
the householder to describe the household.
Asians were more likely than the total population to be in married-couple families.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 9| Nearly 90 percent of the total
population were natives, compared
with about 31 percent of
Asians. In 2000, similar proportions
of Asians were naturalized
citizens and noncitizens
(34 percent each).| Sixty-nine percent of all Asians
were foreign born. However,
only about 40 percent of
Japanese living in this country
were foreign born, compared
with about 75 percent each of
Asian Indians, Vietnamese,
Koreans, Pakistanis, and Thai.| Among the detailed Asian
groups, Asian Indian, Pakistani,
and Thai were the three groups
with the highest proportions of
noncitizens (about 45 percent
each). Filipino had the lowest
proportion (26 percent).
Figure 6.
Nativity and Citizenship Status: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Native Foreign born, naturalized citizen Foreign born, not a citizen
32.6
88.9 4.5 6.6
31.1 34.4 34.5
29.1 37.5 33.3
32.3 41.6 26.1
24.6 29.6 45.8
23.9 44.0 32.1
22.3 39.5 38.2
60.5 10.1 29.4
34.2 30.0 35.8
44.4 17.4 38.2
31.9 32.8 35.3
24.5 30.7 44.8
22.2 32.7 45.1
43.5 23.9
Among the Asian population, similar proportions were natives,
naturalized citizens, or noncitizens.| A higher proportion (76 percent)
of the foreign-born Asian population
than the total foreignborn
population (70 percent)
came to the United States over
the past two decades. Fortythree
percent of the foreignborn
Asian population entered
from 1990 to 2000.| Among the detailed Asian groups,
85 percent or more of foreignborn
Cambodians, Pakistanis, and
Hmong came to the United States
in the past 20 years. In contrast,
nearly 40 percent of foreign-born
Thai came to the United States
before 1980, more than one and
one-half times the proportion for
all foreign-born Asians.| Among the detailed Asian
groups, over 50 percent of
foreign-born Asian Indians,
Japanese, and Pakistanis entered
the United States between 1990
and 2000.
10 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 7.
Foreign Born by Year of Entry: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
Other Asian
Pakistani
Thai
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total foreign born
(Percent distribution. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Before 1980 1980 to 1989 1990 to 2000
50.4
30.4 27.2 42.4
24.1 32.4 43.5
24.4 32.9 42.7
31.3 33.0 35.6
18.2 27.8 54.0
20.2 31.5 48.3
28.2 34.4 37.4
32.9 14.2 52.9
9.9 73.9 16.1
15.2 46.1 38.7
16.9 65.7 17.4
39.1 24.7 36.2
13.2 28.3 58.5
18.1 31.4
In 2000, the majority of the foreign-born Asian population had entered the
United States in the past 20 years.| Of the 9.5 million Asians aged 5
and over, 79 percent spoke a language
other than English at home
and about 40 percent spoke
English less than ?very well.?| The proportion of Asians who
spoke a language other than
English at home ranged from
47 percent for Japanese to
96 percent for Hmong. Over
90 percent of Cambodians,
Hmong, Laotians, Pakistanis, and
Vietnamese spoke a language
other than English at home.| Vietnamese had the highest proportion
of people who spoke
English less than ?very well?
(62 percent).| Among all detailed Asian
groups, Japanese was the only
group with over 50 percent who
spoke only English at home.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 11
Figure 8.
Language Spoken at Home and English-Speaking Ability: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
(Percent distribution of population 5 and older. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection,
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Only English at home Non-English at home,
English spoken ?very well?
Non-English at home,
English spoken less than ?very well?
32.7
82.1 9.8 8.1
21.0 39.4 39.5
14.6 35.8 49.6
29.3 46.6 24.1
19.3 57.6 23.1
6.9 30.6 62.4
18.1 31.4 50.5
52.7 20.0 27.2
8.4 38.1 53.5
4.4 37.0 58.6
7.2 40.1 52.8
7.7 60.6 31.7
19.2 33.9 46.9
31.9 35.4
5 and older
Almost four-fifths of Asians spoke a language other than English at home,
but about three-fifths spoke English ?very well.?| In 2000, roughly 80 percent of
both all Asians and all people in
the United States 25 and older
had at least a high school
education. However, a higher
proportion of Asians (44 percent)
than of the total population
(24 percent) had earned at least
a bachelor?s degree.| Asian Indians had the highest
percentage with a bachelor?s
degree, about 64 percent,
whereas about 60 percent of
Hmong, and about half of
Cambodians and Laotians, had
less than a high school
education.| Japanese had the highest proportion
(91 percent) with at
least a high school education.
12 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
41.4
19.6 28.6 27.4 24.4
19.6 15.8 20.5 44.1
23.0 13.2 15.8 48.1
12.7 14.9 28.6 43.8
13.3 10.3 12.5 63.9
38.1 19.1 23.4 19.4
13.7 21.6 20.9 43.8
8.9 22.2 27.1 41.9
53.3 18.8 18.6 9.2
59.6 16.1 16.8 7.5
49.6 24.4 18.3 7.7
18.0 12.9 14.8 54.3
20.9 17.5 23.1 38.6
19.1 16.3 23.2
Figure 9.
Educational Attainment: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent distribution of population 25 and older. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection,
sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Less than
high school graduate
High school
graduate
Bachelor's degree
or more
Some college or
associate's degree
25 and older
About 80 percent of Asians had a high school diploma or more education.
Among women in the
detailed Asian groups,
Filipino women had the
highest labor force
participation rate.| In 2000, about 71 percent of
both Asian men and all men
aged 16 and over, and about
57 percent of both Asian women
and all women of the same ages,
were in the labor force.| Among the detailed Asian
groups, Asian Indian and
Pakistani men had the highest
labor force participation rates
(79 percent and 77 percent,
respectively). These rates were
also higher than that of all Asian
men. Hmong men had the
lowest rate.| At roughly 65 percent, the labor
force participation rate for
Filipino women exceeded that of
all Asian women, and of women
in the other detailed groups. It
was more than 2 percentage
points higher than the next
highest rate (Thai). Less than
40 percent of Pakistani women
were in the labor force.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 13
Figure 10.
Labor Force Participation Rate by Sex: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent of population 16 and older in the labor force. Data based on sample.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error,
and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
Men
Women
70.7
57.5
71.0
56.4
69.3
56.8
71.0
65.2
79.1
54.0
67.7
56.4
69.0
52.8
68.8
48.1
60.2
50.1
58.5
46.5
65.5
56.3
76.6
36.9
70.2
61.1
70.3
57.8
16 and older| About 45 percent of Asians were
employed in management, professional,
and related occupations,
compared with 34 percent
of the total population.
However, the proportions
employed in these jobs varied
from 13 percent for Laotians to
60 percent for Asian Indians.| Less than 20 percent of
Cambodians, Hmong, and
Laotians were employed in management,
professional, and
related occupations, and more
than 35 percent were employed
in production, transportation,
and material moving jobs.| Twenty-six percent of all Thai,
compared with less than 15 percent
of Asian Indians, Chinese,
Japanese, and Pakistanis, were
employed in service jobs.
14 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
All workers
12.6
33.6 14.9 26.7 0.7 9.4 14.6
44.6 14.1 24 .0 0.3 3.6 13.4
52.3 13.9 20.8 0.1 2.6 10.4
38.2 17.5 28.1 0.5 4.1 11.5
59.9 7.0 21.4 0.2 2.1 9.4
26.9 19.3 18.6 0.6 5.9 28.8
38.7 14.8 30.2 0.2 3.9 12.2
50.7 11.9 26.9 0.4 4.3 5.9
17.8 15.9 23.5 0.5 5.5 36.8
17.1 15.6 20.6 0.4 4.5 41.7
13.4 14.5 19.1 0.5 5.8 46.6
43.5 8.4 30.3 0.1 3.6 14.1
33.4 25.9 22.6 0.2 3.6 14.3
39.8 15.6 27.7 0.3 4.1
Figure 11.
Occupation: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent distribution of employed civilian population 16 and older. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality
protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Management,
professional,
and related Service
Farming,
fishing,
and
forestry
Sales and
office
Construction,
extraction,
and
maintenance
Production,
transportation,
and material
moving
Asians were more likely than the total population to be in management,
professional, and related occupations.
Asian men and women
who worked year-round,
full-time had higher
median earnings than all
men and women.| In 1999, among year-round, fulltime
workers, the median earnings
of Asian men were 9 percent
higher than those of all
men, and the median earnings of
Asian women were 14 percent
higher than those of all women.| On average, Asian women who
worked year-round, full-time
earned about 76 dollars for every
100 dollars earned by their male
counterparts that year.| Asian Indian, Japanese, and
Chinese men had higher median
earnings than Asian men and all
men. Asian Indian men had the
highest year-round, full-time
median earnings ($51,900),
followed by Japanese, with
earnings of $50,900. Hmong
and Laotian men had the lowest
median earnings of year-round,
full-time Asian male workers.| Japanese, Asian Indian, and
Chinese women had the highest
median earnings of all detailed
Asian female groups and higher
median earnings than all Asian
women. They also earned
between $4,300 and $8,800
more annually than all women.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 15
Figure 12.
Median Earnings by Sex: 1999
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(For employed, full-time, year-round workers 16 and older. Data based on sample.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error,
nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
All workers
Men
Women
$29,966
$37,057
$27,194
$40,650
$31,049
$44,831
$34,869
$35,560
$31,450
$51,904
$35,173
$31,258
$24,028
$38,776
$28,403
$50,876
$35,998
$28,706
$21,911
$25,187
$20,237
$26,664
$21,857
$40,277
$28,315
$32,879
$25,403
$36,247
The median annual income
of Asian families was
higher than the median of
all families.| The median income of Asian
families was over $9,000 higher
than the median for all families
($59,300 compared with
$50,000).| Asian Indian and Japanese
families? median incomes were
more than $10,000 higher than
that of all Asian families.| Cambodian, Hmong, Korean,
Laotian, Pakistani, Thai, and
Vietnamese median family
incomes were substantially lower
than the median for all Asian
families. The median incomes of
Hmong and Cambodian families
were the lowest of all Asian
groups ($32,400 and $35,600,
respectively).
16 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 13.
Median Family Income: 1999
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Families classified by race of householder. Data based on sample.
For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error,
and definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
All families
$50,733
$50,046
$59,324
$60,058
$65,189
$70,708
$47,103
$47,624
$70,849
$35,621
$32,384
$43,542
$50,189
$49,635
The poverty rates
of specific Asian groups
varied.| Poverty rates for the Asian population
and the total population
were similar, even though
median earnings for Asians
were higher.9| Hmong had the highest
individual poverty rates,
followed by Cambodians.| The lowest individual poverty
rates were for Filipinos,
Japanese, and Asian Indians.
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 17
Figure 14.
Poverty Rate: 1999
Note: Poverty status was determined for everyone except those in institutions, military
group quarters, or college dormitories, and unrelated individuals under 15 years old.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent in poverty. Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality
protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
Total population
15.6
12.4
12.6
13.5
6.3
9.8
16.0
14.8
9.7
29.3
37.8
18.5
16.5
14.4
9 In 1999, the poverty threshold for a
family of four was $17,029. Poverty statistics
exclude unrelated individuals under 15.
For more information, see Alemayehu Bishaw
and John Iceland, 2003, Poverty: 1999,
U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Brief,
C2KBR-19. This report is available on the
U.S. Census Bureau?s Internet site at
/c2kbr-19.pdf>.
Homeownership was
relatively lower for
Asians than the total
U.S. population.| In 2000, just over 53 percent of
Asian-occupied housing units
were owned by their occupants,
compared with 66 percent of all
occupied housing units.| Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese
had the highest proportion of
owner-occupied housing units
(61 percent, 60 percent, and
58 percent, respectively).| The majority of Chinese,
Filipino, Japanese, Laotian, and
Vietnamese householders
owned their homes. The majority
of householders for the
remaining detailed Asian groups
rented. Hmong, Korean,
Pakistani, and Cambodian had
the highest proportions of
renter-occupied housing units.
18 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Figure 15.
Housing Tenure: 2000
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.
(Percent distribution of occupied housing units. Housing tenure of the detailed group is
shown by the race of the householder. Data based on sample. For information on
confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and
definitions, see www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Other Asian
Thai
Pakistani
Laotian
Hmong
Cambodian
Japanese
Korean
Vietnamese
Asian Indian
Filipino
Chinese
Asian
All occupied
units
Owner
Renter
53.8
66.2
33.8
53.2
46.8
58.4
41.6
60.0
40.0
46.9
53.1
53.2
46.8
40.1
59.9
60.8
39.2
43.6
56.4
38.7
61.3
52.4
47.6
41.7
58.3
48.1
51.9
46.2
ACCURACY OF THE
ESTIMATES
The data contained in this report
are based on the sample of households
that responded to the
Census 2000 long form.
Nationally, approximately one out
of every six housing units was
included in this sample. As a
result, the sample estimates may
differ somewhat from the
100-percent figures that would
have been obtained if all housing
units, people within those housing
units, and people living in group
quarters had been enumerated
using the same questionnaires,
instructions, enumerators, and so
forth. The sample estimates also
differ from the values that would
have been obtained from different
samples of housing units, and
hence of people living in those
housing units, and people living in
group quarters. The deviation of a
sample estimate from the average
of all possible samples is called the
sampling error.
In addition to the variability that
arises from sampling, both sample
data and 100-percent data are subject
to nonsampling error.
Nonsampling error may be introduced
during any of the various
complex operations used to collect
and process data. Such errors may
include: not enumerating every
household or every person in the
population, failing to obtain all
required information from the
respondents, obtaining incorrect or
inconsistent information, and
recording information incorrectly.
In addition, errors can occur during
the field review of the enumerators?
work, during clerical handling
of the census questionnaires, or
during the electronic processing of
the questionnaires.
While it is impossible to completely
eliminate error from an operation
as large and complex as the decennial
census, the Census Bureau
attempts to control the sources of
such error during the data collection
and processing operations.
The primary sources of error and
the programs instituted to control
error in Census 2000 are described
in detail in Summary File 4
Technical Documentation under
Chapter 8, Accuracy of the Data,
located at /prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf>.
Nonsampling error may affect the
data in two ways: first, errors that
are introduced randomly will
increase the variability of the data
and, therefore, should be reflected
in the standard errors; and second,
errors that tend to be consistent in
one direction will bias both sample
and 100-percent data in that direction.
For example, if respondents
consistently tend to underreport
their incomes, then the resulting
estimates of households or families
by income category will tend
to be understated for the higherincome
categories and overstated
for the lower-income categories.
Such biases are not reflected in the
standard errors.
All statements in this Census 2000
Special Report have undergone statistical
testing and all comparisons
are significant at the 90-percent
confidence level, unless otherwise
noted. The estimates in the tables
and figures may vary from actual
values due to sampling and nonsampling
errors. As a result, the
estimates used to summarize statistics
for one population group
may not be statistically different
from estimates for another population
group. Further information on
the accuracy of the data is located
at
/doc/sf4.pdf>. For further information
on the computation and
use of standard errors, contact the
Decennial Statistical Studies
Division at 301-763-4242.
FOR MORE INFORMATION
The Census 2000 Summary File 3
and Summary File 4 data are available
from American Factfinder on
the Census Bureau?s Web site
. For information
on confidentiality protection,
nonsampling error, sampling
error, and definitions, also see
/doc/sf4.pdf> or contact the
Customer Services Center at
301-763-INFO (4636).
Information on population and
housing topics is presented in the
Census 2000 Briefs and Census
2000 Special Reports series, located
on the Census Bureau?s Web site
at /www/cen2000/briefs.html>.
These series present information
on race, Hispanic origin, age, sex,
household type, housing tenure,
and social, economic, and housing
characteristics, such as ancestry,
income, and housing costs.
For more information on race in
the United States, visit the
U.S. Census Bureau?s Web site at
/www/socdemo/race.html>.
To find information about the availability
of data products, including
reports, CD-ROMs, and DVDs, call
the Customer Services Center at
301-763-INFO (4636).
U.S. Census Bureau We the People: Asians in the United States 19
20 We the People: Asians in the United States U.S. Census Bureau
Table 2.
Selected Characteristics of the Asian Population?Alone, In Combination With Non-Asian
Races, and Total: 2000
(Data based on sample. For information on confidentiality protection, sampling error, nonsampling error, and definitions, see
www.census.gov/prod/cen2000/doc/sf4.pdf)
Characteristic
Number Percent
Alone In combination Total Alone In combination Total
Total Asian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,171,820 1,687,626 11,859,446 100.0 100.0 100.0
AGE
Under 18 years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,433,891 754,550 3,188,441 23.9 44.7 26.9
18 to 64 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,954,935 872,527 7,827,462 68.4 51.7 66.0
65 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782,994 60,549 843,543 7.7 3.6 7.1
Median age (years). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33.0 20.6 31.4 (X) (X) (X)
MARITAL STATUS
Population 15 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8,156,126 1,035,686 9,191,812 100.0 100.0 100.0
Never married. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,446,207 441,698 2,887,905 30.0 42.6 31.4
Married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,906,330 468,442 5,374,772 60.2 45.2 58.5
Separated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107,759 20,881 128,640 1.3 2.0 1.4
Widowed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349,654 30,786 380,440 4.3 3.0 4.1
Divorced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346,176 73,879 420,055 4.2 7.1 4.6
HOUSEHOLD TYPE
Households with an Asian householder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,129,127 386,069 3,515,196 100.0 100.0 100.0
Family households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,350,399 265,686 2,616,085 75.1 68.8 74.4
Married couple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,932,421 192,574 2,124,995 61.8 49.9 60.5
Female householder, no spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276,118 49,028 325,146 8.8 12.7 9.2
Male householder, no spouse present. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141,860 24,084 165,944 4.5 6.2 4.7
Nonfamily households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778,728 120,383 899,111 24.9 31.2 25.6
NATIVITY AND CITIZENSHIP
Total population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10,171,820 1,687,626 11,859,446 100.0 100.0 100.0
Native . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,159,618 1,266,277 4,425,895 31.1 75.0 37.3
Foreign born. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,012,202 421,349 7,433,551 68.9 25.0 62.7
Naturalized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,502,021 204,798 3,706,819 34.4 12.1 31.3
Not a citizen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,510,181 216,551 3,726,732 34.5 12.8 31.4
FOREIGN BORN BY YEAR OF ENTRY
Foreign-born population. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7,012,202 421,349 7,433,551 100.0 100.0 100.0
Before 1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,692,548 111,787 1,804,335 24.1 26.5 24.3
1980 to 1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,270,080 130,537 2,400,617 32.4 31.0 32.3
1990 to 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,049,574 179,025 3,228,599 43.5 42.5 43.4
LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME AND ENGLISH SPEAKING ABILITY
Population 5 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9,520,205 1,440,955 10,961,160 100.0 100.0 100.0
Only English at home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,003,642 934,281 2,937,923 19.7 55.4 24.8
Non-English at home, English spoken ??very well?? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,753,638 307,329 4,060,967 36.9 18.2 34.2
Non-English at home, English spoken less than ??very well?? . . . . . . . . . . 3,762,925 199,345 3,962,270 37.0 11.8 33.4
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
Population 25 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6,640,671 710,558 7,351,229 100.0 100.0 100.0
Less than high school graduate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,299,750 127,211 1,426,961 12.8 7.5 12.0
High school graduate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,051,190 160,890 1,212,080 10.3 9.5 10.2
Some college or associate?s degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,363,988 208,657 1,572,645 13.4 12.4 13.3
Bachelor?s degree or more . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,925,743 213,800 3,139,543 28.8 12.7 26.5
LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION
Men 16 years and over. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,793,543 494,119 4,287,662 100.0 100.0 100.0
In labor force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,693,069 356,713 3,049,782 71.0 72.2 71.1
Women 16 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,226,787 506,876 4,733,663 100.0 100.0 100.0
In labor force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,384,722 314,614 2,699,336 56.4 62.1 57.0
OCCUPATION
Employed civilian population 16 years and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4,786,782 611,408 5,398,190 100.0 100.0 100.0
Management, professional, and related occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,132,705 201,972 2,334,677 44.6 33.0 43.2
Service occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 675,200 105,878 781,078 14.1 17.3 14.5
Sales and office occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,148,775 182,971 1,331,746 24.0 29.9 24.7
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14,066 2,429 16,495 0.3 0.4 0.3
Construction, extraction, and maintenance occupations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172,887 41,593 214,480 3.6 6.8 4.0
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations. . . . . . . . . . 643,149 76,563 719,712 13.4 12.5 13.3
EARNINGS AND INCOME (in 1999)
Median earnings (dollars) for males1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40,650 35,110 40,117 (X) (X) (X)
Median earnings (dollars) for females1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31,049 27,897 30,774 (X) (X) (X)
Median income (dollars) for families. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59,324 48,776 57,874 (X) (X) (X)
POVERTY (in 1999)
Individuals for whom poverty status was determined2 . . . . . . . . 9,979,963 1,637,737 11,617,700 100.0 100.0 100.0
Individuals below the poverty level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,257,237 210,176 1,467,413 12.6 12.8 12.6
HOUSING TENURE
Occupied housing units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,117,356 382,805 3,500,161 100.0 100.0 100.0
Owner occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,659,794 181,102 1,840,896 53.2 47.3 52.6
Renter occupied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,457,562 201,703 1,659,265 46.8 52.7 47.4
(X) Not applicable.
1 Based on full-time, year-round workers.
2 Poverty status was determined for everyone except individuals in institutions, military group quarters, college dormitories, and individuals under age 15
unrelated to the householder.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation.


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