When Schools Stay Open Late

Mark Dynarski
October 1, 2004

Institute of Education Sciences
National Center for Education
Evaluation and Regional
Assistance
When Schools Stay Open
Late: The National
Evaluation of the 21st
Century Community
Learning Centers
Program
New Findings
October 2004

When Schools Stay Open Late:
The National Evaluation of the
21st Century Community
Learning Centers Program
New Findings
October 2004
Mark Dynarski
Susanne James-Burdumy
Mary Moore
Linda Rosenberg
John Deke
Wendy Mansfield
Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Elizabeth Warner, Project Officer
Institute of Education Sciences
U.S. Department of Education / Institute of Education Sciences
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance (NCEE)
U.S. Department of Education
Rod Paige
Secretary
Institute of Education Sciences
Grover J. Whitehurst
Director
National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance
Phoebe Cottingham
Commissioner
October 2004
This report was prepared for the Institute of Education Sciences under Contract No. ED-99-CO-0134.
The project officer was Elizabeth Warner in the National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional
Assistance. The Charles Stewart Mott Foundation also contributed to the evaluation under Grant No.
20-205. The views expressed herein are those of the contractor.
This publication is in the public domain. Authorization to reproduce it in whole or in part for
educational purposes is granted.
Suggested Citation
Dynarski, Mark, Susanne James-Burdumy, Mary Moore, Linda Rosenberg, John Deke, and Wendy
Mansfield. When Schools Stay Open Late: The National Evaluation of the 21st Century Community
Learning Centers Program: New Findings. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for
Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,
2004.
For ordering information on this report, write:
U.S. Department of Education
ED Pubs
P.O. Box 1398
Jessup, MD 20794-1398
Call toll free 1-877-4ED-Pubs; or order online at http://www.edpubs.org
This report is also available on the Department?s Web site at:
http://www.ed.gov/ies/ncee
On request, this publication is available in alternate formats, such as Braille, large print, audiotape, or
computer diskette. For more information, please contact the Department?s Alternate Format Center at
(202) 260-9895 or (202) 205-8113.
iii
Acknowledgments
This report resulted from the combined efforts of researchers, data collection experts, and
school staff who are too numerous to all be thanked by name. The authors want to recognize
Elizabeth Warner at the Institute of Education Sciences for her encouragement and support and
for her incisive reviews as the report went from draft to final, and Ricky Takai and Phoebe
Cottingham at the Institute of Education Sciences for their helpful comments. We thank Alan
Krueger and two anonymous referees for reviewing and commenting on drafts. We thank the
staff of the 21st-Century program office at the U.S. Department of Education for their assistance
and support in launching the evaluation and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation for financial
support that enabled us to broaden the evaluation.
Keith Appleby, Heather Berry, Jan Fertig, Jessica Wilkins, Valerie Williams, and Claire
Wilson assisted in managing the data collection. Richard Heman-Ackah, Larry Snell, and
Marianne Stevenson, and their interviewing and data collection staff at phone centers in
Columbia, Maryland, and Princeton, N.J., put in many hours of effort to collect the data. We
also thank Angela Richardson, Peter Crosta, Anne Bloomenthal, Josh Hart, Leonard Hart, Ece
Kalay, Barbara Kolln, Sedhou Ranganathan, for information systems and programming support,
and Angela Richardson and Peter Crosta for their steady managerial assistance. We would also
like to thank Mike Sinclair and Frank Potter for creating nonresponse weights for the study.
Many school district and after-school program staff assisted the evaluation by providing data
and by assisting in site visits. We appreciate their willingness to respond to many requests and to
contribute their perspectives and insights during interviews.
The report was produced by Jill Miller with assistance from Marjorie Mitchell.

v
Contents
Chapter Page
Executive Summary ..................................................................................................... xv
I Introduction .................................................................................................................... 1
A. Features of the Evaluation Design .......................................................................... 3
B. Key Findings From First Report ............................................................................. 5
C. Report Organization ................................................................................................7
II Implementation and Impacts at Elementary School Centers.......................................... 9
A. Features of Elementary School 21st Century Centers............................................. 9
1. Center Goals and Structure ........................................................................... 10
2. Activities and Services .................................................................................. 11
3. Characteristics of Center Staff ...................................................................... 13
B. Attendance at Centers............................................................................................ 13
C. Impacts of Centers................................................................................................. 15
1. Centers Affected Who Students Were With and Where Students
Were After School......................................................................................... 18
2. Centers Increased How Many Mothers Worked or Looked for Work.......... 21
3. Centers Did Not Increase Working on or Completing Homework............... 22
4. Centers Did Not Improve Academic Outcomes............................................ 26
5. Centers Increased Feelings of Safety ............................................................ 27
6. Centers Increased Some Types of Parent Involvement................................. 27
7. Few Improvements in Social and Interpersonal Outcomes........................... 30
8. Few Impacts for Subgroups .......................................................................... 30
Contents (continued)
Chapter Page
vi
III Implementation and Outcome Differences at Middle School Centers......................... 37
A. Middle School Centers in the 2001-2002 School Year......................................... 38
1. Center Goals and Structure ........................................................................... 38
2. Centers Reported Placed Greater Emphasis on Academics .......................... 40
3. Centers Experienced Heavy Staff Turnover.................................................. 41
B. Student Attendance Was Low in the Second Year ............................................... 42
C. Middle School Center Outcome Differences ........................................................ 47
1. Some Differences in Supervision, Location, and After-School
Activities .......................................................................................................51
2. Few Differences in Academic Outcomes...................................................... 54
3. Higher Educational Aspirations for Treatment Students .............................. 59
4. No Differences in Social and Emotional Outcomes...................................... 59
5. No Differences in Parent Outcomes.............................................................. 59
6. No Differences in Feelings of Safety ............................................................ 61
7. Mixed Evidence on Negative Behaviors ....................................................... 61
D. Few Differences for Subgroups............................................................................. 63
E. Comparing Estimates ............................................................................................ 64
References .................................................................................................................... 71
Appendix A: Response Rates and Data Quality.......................................................... 75
Appendix B: Study Design and Methods for Estimating Impacts .............................. 87
Appendix C: Sensitivity Tests and Results for Alternative Specifications ................. 97
Appendix D: Subgroup Tables .................................................................................. 139
vii
Tables
Table Page
II.1 21st Century Elementary School Center Attendance, Year 1 ......................................... 14
II.2 Characteristics of Treatment And Control Group Students At Baseline,
Elementary School Centers ............................................................................................. 17
II.3 Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision, and
Activities After School, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 ......................................... 19
II.4 Impacts on Academic and Other In-School Outcomes, Elementary School
Centers, Year 1 ................................................................................................................ 23
II.5 Impacts on Type of Homework Assistance, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 .......... 25
II.6 Impacts on Other Outcomes, Elementary School Centers, Year 1.................................. 28
II.7a Impacts on Location and Care After School, Student Effort, Maternal Employment,
and Student Discipline Outcomes for White, Black, and Hispanic Subgroups,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1................................................................................. 31
II.7b Impacts on Location and Care After School, Student Effort, Maternal Employment,
and Student Discipline Outcomes for Two-Parent and One-Parent Subgroups,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1................................................................................. 32
II.8a Impacts on Student Attendance, Academic Achievement, and Other Outcomes
for White, Black, and Hispanic Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1........... 33
II.8b Impacts on Student Attendance, Academic Achievement, and Other Outcomes for
Two-Parent and One-Parent Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1................ 34
III.1 21st Century Middle School Center Attendance, Year 2 ................................................. 44
III.2 Characteristics of Center Participants and Comparison-Group Students:
Middle School Centers .................................................................................................... 48
III.3 Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision,
and Activities After School, Middle School Centers, Year 2.......................................... 52
III.4 Outcome Differences in Homework Completion and on Behavior and Level of
Effort in the Classroom, Middle School Centers, Year 2................................................ 55
Tables (continued)
Table Page
viii
III.5 Outcome Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades,
Middle School Centers, Year 2........................................................................................ 57
III.6 Outcome Differences in Types of Homework Assistance, Middle School Centers,
Year 2 .............................................................................................................................. 58
III.7 Outcome Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations, and Parental
Involvement, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ................................................................. 60
III.8 Outcome Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization,
Middle School Centers, Year 2........................................................................................ 62
III.9a Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and
Activities Outcomes After School For White, Black, and Hispanic
Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2 .................................................................... 65
III.9b Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and
Activities After School for Low and High Baseline Grade Subgroups,
Middle School Centers, Year 2........................................................................................ 66
III.10a Outcome Differences in Other Student and Parent Outcomes for White, Black, and
Hispanic Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ..................................................... 67
III.10b Outcome Differences in Other Student and Parent Outcomes for Low and High
Baseline Grades Subgroups, Middle School centers, Year 2 .......................................... 68
III.11 Effect Sizes For Selected Outcomes From First Report And Current Report................. 69
A.1 Data Sources by Data-Collection Wave .......................................................................... 78
A.2 Sample Sizes and Response Rates for the Baseline and First Followup
Elementary School Sites.................................................................................................. 79
A.3 Distribution Of Response Rates For Elementary School Sites........................................ 79
A.4 Sample Sizes And Response Rates For Second Followup Middle School Sites............. 82
A.5 Distribution Of Response Rates, By Site, For Middle School Second Followup ........... 83
A.6 Sample Sizes and Response Rates: Data Collected From School and
After-School Center Staff Members In 2001-2002 ......................................................... 84
C.1 Sensitivity of Impact Estimates To Alternative Specifications, Elementary School
Centers, Year 1 .............................................................................................................. 101
Tables (continued)
Table Page
ix
C.2 Number of Sites With Positive Or Negative Impacts On Other Outcomes,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 102
C.3 Sensitivity of Various Self-Care Impact Estimates To Alternative
Specifications, Elementary School Centers, Year 1...................................................... 104
C.4 Examining the Effect of Regressors on Baseline Differences Between
Treatment and Comparison Groups, Middle School Centers........................................ 106
C.5 Sensitivity of Outcome Differences to Alternative Specifications, Middle School
Centers, Year 2 .............................................................................................................. 108
C.6 Number of Sites With Positive or Negative Outcome Differences on
Student Safety, Negative Behavior, And Victimization, Middle School
Centers, Year 2 .............................................................................................................. 109
C.7 Sensitivity Of Alternative Self-Care Outcome Differences to Alternative
Specifications, Middle School Centers, Year 2............................................................. 111
C.8 Characteristics of Center Participants and Comparison-Group Students:
Middle School Centers .................................................................................................. 113
C.9 Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location,
Supervision, and Activities After School, Middle School Centers, Year 2 .................. 115
C.10 Outcome Differences in Homework Completion and Level of Effort and
Behavior in the Classroom, Middle School Centers, Year 2......................................... 118
C.11 Outcome Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades,
Middle School Centers, Year 2...................................................................................... 120
C.12 Outcome Differences in Quality of Homework Assistance, Middle School
Centers, Year 2 .............................................................................................................. 121
C.13 Outcome Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations,
and Parental Involvement, Middle School Centers, Year 2 .......................................... 122
C.14 Outcome Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and
Victimization, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................................................. 124
C.15 Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision,
and Activities After School By Attendance, Middle School Centers,
Year 2 ............................................................................................................................ 127
Tables (continued)
Table Page
x
C.16 Differences in Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Behavior
In the Classroom by Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ................................ 129
C.17 Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades By Attendance,
Middle School Centers, Year 2...................................................................................... 130
C.18 Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations,
and Parental Involvement by Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2 .................. 131
C.19 Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization
By Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2............................................................ 132
C.20 Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Specification for Teacher-Reported
Achievement and Grades, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ........................................... 135
C.21 Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Estimation Technique for Maternal
Employment and Students? Location, Supervision, and Activities
After School, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................................................... 137
C.22 Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Estimation Technique for
Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization,
Middle School Centers, Year 2...................................................................................... 138
D.1a Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care,
and Activities After School by Subgroup, Elementary School
Centers, Year 1 .............................................................................................................. 141
D.1b Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 .................................. 142
D.1c Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 .................................. 143
D.2a Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Classroom
Behavior by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 ........................................ 144
D.2b Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Classroom
Behavior by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1 ........................................ 145
D.2c Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and
Classroom Behavior by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers,
Year 1 ............................................................................................................................ 146
D.3a Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 147
Tables (continued)
Table Page
xi
D.3b Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 148
D.3c Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 149
D.4a Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 150
D.4b Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 151
D.4c Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1............................................................................... 152
D.5a Outcome Differences on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care,
and Activities After School by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2 .................. 153
D.5b Outcome Differences on Maternal Employment and Students? Location,
Care, and Activities After School By Subgroup, Middle School Centers,
Year 2 ............................................................................................................................ 154
D.6a Outcome Differences on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and
Classroom Behavior by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................. 155
D.6b Outcome Differences on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and
Classroom Behavior by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................. 156
D.7a Outcome Differences on Other Student and Parent Outcomes
by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................................................... 157
D.7b Outcome Differences on Other Student and Parent Outcomes
by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2 ............................................................... 158

xiii
Figures
Figures Page
II.1 Days Attended Per Week, Year 1.................................................................................... 15
III.1 Attendance in Second Year ............................................................................................. 43
III.2 Average Days Attended Each Week, Second Year and First Year ................................. 46
III.3 Average Days Attended Each Week, Second-Year Participants and
First-Year Participants..................................................................................................... 46
B.1 Effect of 10 More Days Attended on Achievement ........................................................ 94

xv
When Schools Stay Open Late:
New Findings From the National Evaluation
Executive Summary
After-school programs have grown rapidly in recent years, spurred by rising employment
rates of mothers, pressure to increase academic achievement, and concerns about risks to
children who are unsupervised during after-school hours. The percentage of public schools
offering ?extended day? programs (which include before- and after-school programs) more than
tripled from 1987 to 1999, from about 13 percent to 47 percent.
The federal government?s investment in after-school programs has grown rapidly as well.
Funding for the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program, created in 1994, rose from
$40 million in 1998 to $1 billion in 2002. The program now provides funding to 2,250 school
districts to support school-based programs in 7,000 public schools.
Some studies of after-school programs have found that these programs increase academic
achievement and student safety, as well as reduce negative behaviors such as drug and alcohol
use. However, other studies have found that after-school programs have no effect on?and even
worsen?certain outcomes, leading to debate over whether the evidence supports increased
investment in after-school programs.
In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education contracted with Mathematica Policy Research,
Inc., and Decision Information Resources, Inc., to evaluate the 21st Century Community
Learning Centers program. The evaluation team collected student outcome data in five areas:
after-school supervision, location, and activities; academic performance and achievement;
behavior; personal and social development; and safety. Because the purpose of the 21st Century
Community Learning Centers program by law is safe and drug-free learning environments for
students that support academic achievement, this evaluation focused on student and school
outcomes. It did not explore the full range of parental needs and satisfaction that might be
affected by the availability of after-school programs. It did collect parent outcome data on
involvement in school activities and employment status.
In its first year of data collection, the team gathered data for roughly 1,000 elementary
school students in 18 schools in 7 school districts, and 4,300 middle school students in
61 schools in 32 school districts. The elementary study was based on random assignment, in
which outcomes of students assigned to the program were compared with outcomes of students
not assigned to the program. The middle school evaluation was based on a matched-comparison
design, in which outcomes of students who participated in programs were compared with
outcomes of similar students who did not. Findings from these data were presented in the
study?s first report (hereafter referred to as the ?first report?), which was released in February
2003.
For the second year of data collection, researchers gathered additional data in two ways.
First, they added more elementary school programs and students. Second, they followed middle
school students for a second year, which enabled the evaluation to explore whether there were
xvi
outcome differences after two years. The results are summarized in this new report, which
contains findings from this second year of data collection. A third report will analyze impacts
for elementary students after two years.
Key Findings From the Second Year
The findings from the second year of the study are generally consistent with those from the
first year. Specifically, the study found| Supervision by Other Adults Increased. Students in programs were more likely to be
with adults who were not their parents after school and less likely to be with their
parents or older siblings.| Self-Care Was Unaffected. Participation in programs had no effect on whether
students were in self-care (so-called latch-key children) after school. Multiple
definitions of self-care were analyzed with similar results.| Few Impacts on Academic Achievement. Programs did not affect reading test scores
or grades for elementary students. Grades for middle school students in programs
were higher in social studies relative to the comparison group but not in English,
mathematics, and science. Programs did not increase whether elementary or middle
school students completed their homework. Middle school students in programs
missed fewer days of school and were more likely to aspire to attend college.| Elementary Students Felt Safer. Elementary students in after-school programs
reported feeling safer during after-school hours. Middle school students did not
report feeling safer.| Mixed Evidence on Negative Behavior for Middle School Students. Some estimates
pointed to higher levels of negative behaviors for middle school students, while
others indicated no differences between treatment and comparison groups.| Some Impacts on Parent Outcomes. Parents of participating elementary school
students were more likely to report that they attended school events. Other measures
of parent involvement did not increase. There was some evidence that programs
increased whether mothers of elementary students worked or looked for work.
Involvement of middle school parents did not differ between the treatment and
comparison groups. No employment difference was observed for mothers of middle
school students.| Few Impacts on Developmental Outcomes. Elementary students were more likely to
report helping other students after school. They were no more likely to report being
able to work with others on a team, believe the best of other people, or set goals and
work to achieve them. Middle school students showed no differences in these
outcomes.
xvii| Low Middle School Attendance in Second Year. Two attendance patterns emerged
in the study?s second year. First, many students who had access to programs in the
second year (53 percent) did not attend. Second, among those who did attend,
average attendance was low (30 days) and similar to attendance during the first year
(33 days).| Moderate Elementary School Attendance. The first report noted that elementary
school students attended programs an average of 58 days in the school year. With
five additional sites and a larger student sample, average attendance was 63 days.| Stable Program Leadership, But High Staff Turnover Between the First and
Second Years. Eighty-two percent of project directors who worked in programs
during the first year still worked for the programs in the second year. However, twothirds
of the line staff and one-third of center coordinators who worked in programs
during the first year of the study were no longer working for the programs in the
second year.
Study Methodology
The national evaluation of the 21st Century Community Learning Centers program includes an
elementary school study and a middle school study.
The elementary school study uses random assignment of students to treatment and control
groups. The study involved 12 school districts and 26 centers, which were included in the
evaluation because the centers had more students interested in attending than the centers could
serve, a precondition for random assignment. The findings are based on baseline and followup
data collected from students, parents, teachers, principals, program staff members, and
school records. The baseline and follow-up data were collected for 589 treatment group
students and 384 control group students in 7 school districts in the 2000-2001 school year, and
for 693 treatment group students and 666 control group students in 5 school districts in the
2001-2002 school year. The total elementary school sample was 2,308 students.
The middle school study is based on a nationally representative sample of 21st Century
programs serving middle school participants and a matched comparison group of students who
are similar to participants. Similar students were identified in host schools or in other schools
in the participating districts. Student data were collected from 32 school districts and 61
centers in those districts. The sample includes 1,782 participants who were matched to 2,482
comparison students.
The U.S. Department of Education has funded seven cohorts of grantees. The middle school
study includes grantees from the first three cohorts of grants, and the elementary school study
includes grantees from the first five. When the study began, all grantees were in their second
or third year of a 3-year grant. In 2001, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) law changed the
program to state administration; this study does not include 21st Century programs from the
state-administered program.
The implementation analysis was based on site visits that were conducted to all grantees, with
visits lasting between two and four days. Each center was visited twice, once during each of
the two years of the study.
xviii
Characteristics and Impacts of Elementary School Programs
The two most common objectives of administrators of elementary school programs were to
offer students a safe place after school and to help students improve academically. These goals
mirror those of parents, who said they enrolled their children in the programs to help them do
better in school (79 percent of parents) or to provide ?a safe place for my child after school?
(63 percent of parents).
Generally programs were open for three hours after school four or five days a week. A
typical day included one hour for homework and a snack, one hour for another academic activity
such as a computer lab, and one hour for recreational or cultural activities.
Eighty-five percent of the centers offered homework assistance, mostly by setting aside time
for students to do their homework. Eighty-five percent also provided academic activities, such
as teaching or tutoring, in addition to, or instead of, homework help.
Moreover, programs provided recreational, cultural, and interpersonal activities. Nearly all
centers?92 percent?offered recreational opportunities, ranging from unstructured free time to
organized sports. Programs also offered dance, drama, and music, and workshops on
developmental topics, such as building leadership skills and resolving conflicts with peers.
A Typical Elementary School Center
The center is open five days a week for three hours a day, serving students in
kindergarten through grade six. About 120 students a day come to the center. The first 75
minutes is snack time followed by homework. Certified teachers and aides supervise the
homework sessions. The next two sessions are 40 minutes each and include academic and
enrichment activities. For the first session, students alternately work on computers to enhance
their reading or math skills or meet with a certified teacher for lessons that complement what
students worked on with computers. For the next session, students are grouped with other
students in their grade and rotate through enrichment activities such as arts and crafts, karate,
and fitness and dance. A mix of teachers, instructional aides, and outside organizations lead
the enrichment activities. On Fridays, students have free choice for one 40-minute block and
use the time to play board games or basketball.
xix
Figure 1
Elementary School Student Attendance
at Centers
23.5
16.4
14.8
18.9
26.4 26 to 50 days
51 to 75 days
76 to 100 days
101 to 175 days
Percent of Students
SOURCE: Center Attendance Records.
Attendance at programs was
moderate (Figure 1). Students
attended, on average, 63 days a year,
or about two days a week. Almost
one-fourth of the students attended
more than 100 days a year and onefourth
attended fewer than 26 days.
Supervision After School.
Students who attended after-school
programs were more likely to be
with adults who were not their
parents, and less likely to be with
their parents after school. Students
also were less likely to be with an
older sibling after school. Programs
did not affect the frequency with which students reported ?self-care,? or the number of days
when they were at home after school without a parent, another adult, or an older sibling. Just
over one percent of both groups of students said they were in self-care three or more days in a
typical week (Figure 2).
Academic Achievement. Students attending after-school programs scored no better on
reading tests than their peers who did not participate; nor did their grades in English,
mathematics, science, and social studies increase (Figure 2). In addition, there were no
statistically significant differences between the two groups of students in time spent on
homework, student effort in class, preparation for class, and absenteeism; and, according to
teachers, program students were less likely to complete homework often.
Figure 2
Selected Impacts on Elementary School Students
59.2
1.3
81.1
82.0
4.5
1.2
80.9
81.9
35.9
35.0
53.4**
1.5**
0 20 40 60 80 100
Not feel safe after school
Self-care
Often complete homework
Math grade
English grade
Reading test score
Control Group Program Group **Difference is significant at the .05 level.
SOURCE: Authors? Calculations, see Chapter II.
xx
Safety After School. Programs improved students? reported feelings of safety after school;
1.5 percent of participants, compared with 4.5 percent of nonparticipants, reported feeling ?not at
all safe? after school (Figure 2).
Developmental Outcomes. Programs had few impacts on developmental outcomes. For
example, treatment group students were no more likely to report getting along with others their
age, to rate themselves highly on working with others on a team, or to be able to set goals and
work to achieve them than nonparticipants. Students in programs were more likely to report
helping other students after school.
Negative Behaviors. Students in programs were no less likely than students in the control
group to be suspended, to receive detention, or to be sent to the office for misbehaving. Students
in programs were as likely as control students to report negative behaviors, such as breaking
things, arguing with parents, or giving teachers a hard time.
Parent Outcomes. Parents of students in programs were more likely to attend after-school
events in schools. There was no effect on parents attending parent-teacher organization meetings
or school open houses, or volunteering at school. There was some evidence that programs
increased whether mothers of elementary students worked or looked for work. Mothers of
students in programs were more likely to be in the labor force (working full time, part time, or
looking for work) than mothers of control students.
Subgroup Impacts. The study looked at subgroup impacts for elementary students but
found few groups with significant impacts. Students from two-parent households had larger
impacts on some outcomes than students in single-parent households, but after controlling for
membership in other subgroups, many of these impacts were no longer significant.
Characteristics and Outcome Differences of Middle School Programs
During the second year of the study?s data collection, program administrators indicated that
their major objectives for programs serving middle school students were to help students
improve academically and to provide a safe place for them after school. About 80 percent of
centers offered homework sessions and 60 percent offered other types of academic assistance,
such as additional help in language arts or mathematics. The emphasis on academics increased
from the first to second year, according to site visitors, principals, center coordinators, and
project directors. While our site visit data cannot confirm this shift, there clearly was a
perception that centers were focusing more on academic activities.
A Typical 21st Century Middle School Center
About 45 students participate on an average day. After the school day ends at
1:30 p.m., students gather in the school cafeteria to get a snack followed by
homework. After homework time ends, students choose from a variety of activities,
such as free time in the gym, board games, table tennis, computer lab, and arts and
crafts. A mix of certified teachers and paraprofessionals supervise the homework
session and other activities.
xxi
Figure 3
Middle School Attendance at Centers in
the Second Year, Participating Students
10.4
9.2
21.3
59.0 26 to 50 days
51 to 75 days
>75 days
Percent of Students
SOURCE: Center Attendance Records.
Programs experienced considerable staff turnover during the 2 years of the study. Twothirds
of the staff did not return in the second year; almost one-third of the schools where centers
were located had a new principal, and one-third had a new center coordinator. Only about 20
percent of programs had a new project director. Staff most commonly cited the demands on time
that after-school work posed rather than pay as the reason for not returning.
Program attendance was much lower in the second year, averaging just 8.8 days. This was
in large part because many students?59 percent of the program group?transferred to high
schools or other middle schools that
had no 21st Century programs.
Among the 41 percent of the program
group who had access to the program
in the second year, 47 percent attended
at least 1 day; for the year, their
attendance averaged 30 days. This is
similar to the average number of days
attended in the first year (33 days).
Ten percent of participating students
attended more than 75 days and
59 percent of participating students
attended fewer than 26 days (Figure
3). Week-to-week attendance patterns
also were similar to first-year patterns.
Supervision After School. The program group was less likely to be with siblings than the
comparison group. There were no differences in self-care, with roughly 19 percent of
participants and nonparticipants indicating that they were not with an adult or older sibling three
or more days a week after school.
Academic Achievement. There were few differences between the program and comparison
groups on academic outcomes (Figure 4). The program group had higher grades in social
studies. Other outcomes?including grades in mathematics, science, and English, as well as
teacher reports of achievement?did not differ. The level of homework completion also did not
differ.
Safety After School. There were no differences between the program group and
comparison group in feelings of safety after school.
Developmental Outcomes. The program group was more likely than the comparison
group?82 percent versus 79 percent?to expect to graduate from college. No differences were
observed in other developmental areas.
Negative Behaviors. Findings on one of several drug-use questions indicated that the
program group had a higher incidence of drug use (use for both groups was low). There were no
differences on the other measures of drug use. There were mixed findings on other measures of
behavior. Treatment students were more likely than comparison students to report breaking
things on purpose and had higher values on an index of negative behaviors, but there were no
xxii
differences on other outcomes such as punching someone, stealing, selling drugs, or getting
arrested.
Parent Outcomes. No differences were found in parent involvement.
Subgroup Impacts. The study examined six subgroups: (1) grade level, (2) whether
students had low or high reading test scores at baseline, (3) whether students had low or high
discipline problems at baseline, (4) student race and ethnicity, (5) student gender, and
(6) whether students lived in two-parent or one-parent households. None showed distinct
patterns of difference, with one exception: students with low grades (at baseline) had more
positive impacts than did students with high grades. Reasons for the difference were not clear.
Comparison of Findings of the First and Second Reports
The comparison below is presented separately for elementary and middle school students
because the basis for differences in findings differs for the two groups. For elementary school
students, differences in findings between the first and second reports are due to the addition of
new sites to the study; for middle school students, differences in findings relate to an additional
follow-up year.
Elementary School Students
Supervision and Location After School. Both reports found that elementary school
students attending programs were less likely to be supervised by parents and siblings and more
Figure 4
Selected Impacts on Middle School Students After Two Years
2.7
19.0
81.3
79.3
80.1
2.5
19.8
8.0
83.0
78.6
79.6
10.4**
0 20 40 60 80 100
Not feel safe
after school
Self-care
Break something
on purpose
Often complete
homework
Math grade
English grade
Similar Students Participant Group
** Difference is significant at the .05 level.
SOURCE: Authors? Calculations, see Chapter III
xxiii
likely to be supervised by other adults. They also were more likely to be at school and less likely
to be at home during after-school hours.
Academic Achievement. Both reports found that programs generally did not improve
academic outcomes such as grades or test scores. In the first report, elementary school students
had higher grades in social studies but not in English, mathematics, or science. In the second
report, grades were not higher in any of the four subjects. Both reports found no difference in
reading test scores. Both reports found homework completion was lower; the second report?s
finding was statistically significant.
Safety After School. Both reports found that students reported feeling safer after school;
only the second report?s finding (based on a larger sample size) was statistically significant.
Social, Emotional, and Developmental Outcomes. Both reports found that students were
more likely to help other students after school. There were no differences in other outcomes,
such as the extent to which students reported getting along with others or setting goals and
working toward them.
Negative Behaviors. Students were equally likely to be disciplined for bad behavior, be
suspended, or receive detention.
Parent Outcomes. Both reports found that parents were more likely to attend after-school
events, to help their children with homework, and to ask their children about class.
Subgroup Outcomes. Neither report found noteworthy patterns of subgroup outcomes. In
the second report, students from two-parent households had larger impacts on some outcomes
than students from single-parent households, but these differences were no longer significant
after controlling for students? membership in other subgroups. This subgroup was not examined
in the first report.
Middle School Students
Supervision and Location After School. The first report found that program students were
more likely than comparison-group students to be supervised by other adults and less likely to be
supervised by parents or siblings. Students also were more likely to be at school and less likely
to be at home during the after-school hours. In the second report, the only significant findings
were a reduction in being supervised by siblings and an increase in being at school during the
after-school hours.
Academic Achievement. Both reports found few differences in academic outcomes. In the
first report, students had higher grades in math but not in English, science, or social studies. In
the second report, students had higher grades in social studies but not in English, math, or
science. Both reports found no differences in homework completion. School absences were
lower for treatment students relative to comparison students in both reports.
Safety After School. Both reports found no differences in feelings of safety after school.
xxiv
Social, Emotional, and Developmental Outcomes. Both reports found an increase in
students who expected to go to college.
Negative Behaviors. Both reports found mixed evidence on negative behaviors. Some
estimates indicated that program students were more likely to engage in negative behaviors and
others showed no difference.
Parent Outcomes. The first report indicated that parents were more likely to attend open
houses, parent/teacher organization meetings, and after-school events, and more likely to
volunteer at school. The second report found no differences in parent involvement.
Subgroup Outcomes. The first report found some increases in academic outcomes for
black and Hispanic middle school students. The second report did not find such increases.
1
I. Introduction
The number of after-school programs has grown quickly in recent years, spurred by rising
employment rates of mothers, pressures on districts and schools to increase academic
achievement, concerns about risks to children who are unsupervised in after-school hours, and
the expansion of federal funding for after-school programs. The percentage of public schools
offering extended-day programs tripled from 1987 to 1999 (National Center for Education
Statistics 2002) and estimates from the National Household Education Survey indicate that the
number of children in kindergarten through 2nd grade in after-school programs grew from 1.6
million in 1995 to 2.5 million in 2001 (Brimhall and Reaney 1999; Kleiner et al. 2004).
Federal funding for after-school programs through the federal 21st Century Community
Learning Centers program rose from $40 million in 1998 to $1 billion in 2002. In addition,
federal funding from other sources, such as Temporary Aid for Needy Families or the Child Care
and Development Fund, now supports after-school programs.
Some research studies have reported that after-school programs increase academic
achievement, enhance safety, and reduce negative behaviors such as drug and alcohol use
(Brooks et al. 1995; Hamilton and Klein 1998; Tierney et al. 1995; Welsh et al. 2002). However,
most studies report negative or neutral findings for some outcomes and positive findings for
others, patterns that have been noted by observers and researchers reviewing the literature
(Fashola 1998; Hollister 2003; National Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2002; Roth
et al. 1998). Some researchers and policymakers have argued that the research base supports
increased investments in after-school programs (Afterschool Alliance 2003; Fight Crime: Invest
in Kids 2003; Schwarzenegger 2003), while others have argued the opposite (Olsen 2000).
2
In 1999, the U.S. Department of Education contracted with Mathematica Policy Research,
Inc., and Decision Information Resources, Inc., to evaluate the 21st Century Community
Learning Centers program. The program was authorized in the Improving America?s Schools
Act of 1994 and began awarding grants to school districts in 1998, primarily to support afterschool
programs.
The evaluation?s elementary school study was based on random assignment, in which
outcomes of students assigned to the program were compared with outcomes of students who
were not assigned to the program for lack of space. The evaluation?s middle school study was
based on a comparison design in which outcomes of students who participated in programs were
compared with outcomes of similar students who did not.
In the first year of data collection, school year 2000-2001, researchers collected data for
roughly 1,000 elementary school students in 18 schools in 7 school districts. In the second year
of data collection, researchers collected data for five additional grantees, which brought the
sample up to 2,308 students in 26 schools in 12 districts. Adding five grantees to the study
enhanced its statistical power for detecting program impacts. This report combines the two
grantee cohorts and reanalyzes the program?s impacts on elementary school students after 1 year.
The study is collecting a second year of data for elementary school students, and a future report
will present findings based on these data.
The middle school study comprised 4,300 middle school students in 61 schools in 32 school
districts. Unlike the elementary school study, the middle school study did not add new grantees
or schools in its second year. In its second year, it gathered more data from students, teachers,
and parents, which allowed the study to examine outcome differences after two school years.
3
A. Features of the Evaluation Design
The key features of the evaluation?s design are noted below. Additional information about
the study design can be found in chapter I of the first report and in the evaluation?s design report
(Dynarski et al. 2001).
Elementary Schools. The evaluation identified 21st Century programs that had waiting lists
or were turning students away for lack of space and implemented experimental designs. In fall
2000, roughly 1,000 students from 18 schools in seven grantees applied to 21st Century
programs and were randomly assigned (findings in the first report were based on this sample). In
fall 2001, an additional 1,300 students from eight schools in five school districts applied to 21st
Century programs and were randomly assigned. This new report presents results for the full
sample of 2,300 students (in 26 elementary schools) after one school year.
Middle Schools. The evaluation used a comparison design for a nationally representative
sample of grantees that operated 21st Century programs in middle schools. Thirty-four grantees
were sampled randomly and agreed to participate in the study, and baseline data were collected
for 32 grantees (for two grantees, delays in starting data collection were too long to include in the
report). Students who had attended the program at least three days in a one-month window in
fall 2000 (according to program records) constituted the study?s ?treatment? group. Also in fall
2000, the study administered questionnaires to more than 21,000 students who were and were not
participating in 21st Century programs. Using data from the questionnaires, propensity score
methods matched program students to similar students who were not attending.
Propensity score methods involved selecting as comparison students those students whose
characteristics most closely resemble the students in the treatment group on a range of
demographic and academic characteristics (Rosenbaum and Rubin 1983). Propensity score
models were estimated separately for each grantee; comparison students were matched only to
4
treatment students in the same school district. In about half of the grantees, comparison students
were drawn from the same schools attended by participants. In the other half, comparison
students were drawn from similar schools in the district.
The matching followed three main steps. First, for each district, the study team estimated a
logistic regression model in which the dependent variable was participation status and the
independent variables were student demographic characteristics, indicators of student social
development, measures of academic performance, and measures of student behavior. (See Table
B.1 in the first report for a listing of matching variables). In most districts, the matching was
based on 38 student characteristics.1 For participants and potential comparison group students,
propensity scores were generated based on the estimated models. Second, for each participant,
we identified the potential comparison group student whose propensity score was numerically
closest to the participant?s propensity score. To allow for possible attrition in case parent
consent was not received, we also identified potential comparison group students whose
propensity scores ranked them as the second- or third-best match. Once we identified matching
students for each participant, we conducted statistical tests of the equality of the set of
characteristics for participants and the samples of first-best, second-best, and third-best matches.
Third, we created an algorithm to generate 2,000 model specifications (created by drawing
random combinations of characteristics and interactions of characteristics) and carried out steps
one through four to find the most equivalent comparison groups.
1In some districts, characteristics had to be dropped from the matching models because they did not vary
enough. For example, the characteristic for whether students were Hispanic was dropped in some districts that had
few or no students who were Hispanic.
5
The study used propensity scoring because of its appealing theoretical properties and its
feasibility. However, in practice, comparison designs generally have lower validity than random
assignment, a caution that applies to the findings here as well.2
Ultimately, about 4,400 students were included in the evaluation?s middle school sample.
The evaluation collected follow-up data in spring 2001 that formed the basis of the findings
presented in the first report. It collected another round of follow-up data in spring 2002 that
forms the basis for the findings presented in this new report.
Outcomes. The study collected data on a wide array of outcomes that were described in the
design report and the first report. Outcomes spanned five domains: supervision and location
after school, academic performance, social and emotional indicators, behavior, and safety.
Specific outcomes included location and supervision after school, grades, test scores, teachers?
perceptions of classroom behavior and effort, school absences, parental involvement,
victimization, incidents of delinquent behavior, and feelings of safety after school. The wide
range of outcomes reflects the many objectives embraced by after-school programs.
Data Sources. The evaluation?s data sources also were described in the first report. They
include questionnaires completed by students, parents, teachers, principals, and program staff
members, as well as reading tests, school records, program attendance records, and site visits.
B. Key Findings From First Report
The findings from the first year of data collection, which appeared in the February 2003
report, provide a useful context for results presented in this report. For elementary schools, key
results were:
2Rosenbaum and Rubin (1983) show that the propensity scoring technique can be equivalent to random
assignment under specific conditions. Whether the conditions are met, however, can be verified only in rare
circumstances.
6| Students attended programs about 2 days per week, an average of 58 days.| After-school program students (who had applied and been assigned to programs)
were more likely than control-group students to be with an adult who was not their
parent after school and less likely to be with a parent or sibling. They also were more
likely to be at school or another place for activities and less likely to be at home after
school. The incidence of self-care was the same for both groups.| Program-group students were as likely as control-group students to report feeling
safer after school.| Program-group students did not improve their reading test scores or their grades in
math, English, or science relative to the control group. They did improve their grades
in social studies.| Program-group students were as likely as control-group students to complete their
homework.| No relationships were found between impacts and program and student
characteristics.
For middle school students, key first-year findings were:| Students attended programs about 1 day per week, an average of 33 days.| Students attending programs were more likely than control-group students to be with
an adult who was not their parent after school and less likely to be with a parent or
sibling. They also were more likely to be at school or another place for activities
after school and less likely to be in their own homes or the home of someone else.| Students attending programs were no more likely to feel safe after school.| Students attending programs were not more likely to complete their homework and
did not improve their grades in English, science, or history, relative to comparison
students. They did improve their grades in math.| Parents of students attending programs were more likely to attend school open
houses, after-school events, and parent-teacher organization meetings.| Students attending programs had higher levels of some negative behaviors, and were
more likely to be victimized, such as having things taken from them.
Other recent studies of after-school programs have yielded similar results. For example,
infrequent attendance has been found for such programs (Grossman et al. 2002; Walker and
Arbreton 2004), as well as inadequate help with homework (Reisner et al. 2001; Walker and
7
Arbreton 2004), a lack of improvement in grades and test scores (Welsh et al. 2002; Walker and
Arbreton 2004), and the possibility of more negative behaviors (Sherman et al. 1998).
However, the findings fall well short of consensus. For example, a recent review of research
on ?out-of-school time? programs (which included summer-school, after-school, and Saturday
programs) reported that they increased reading and math achievement (Lauer et al. 2003).3
C. Report Organization
The report describes the implementation and impacts of elementary school programs after
one year of the study, followed by the implementation and outcome differences of middle school
programs after two years of the study. Because the first report described program
implementation in detail, this new report focuses on describing key features of the programs?
implementation and on identifying areas in which evidence from our implementation study may
help inform the study?s impact findings. (A future report will assess implementation and impacts
for elementary school programs after two years of operation.) The appendixes present detailed
information about response rates and data quality, methods for estimating impacts, and additional
findings not presented in the main text.
Two types of additional analyses are presented in the appendix. First, because some middle
school students graduated or transferred to other schools and did not have access to a 21st
Century center in the study?s second year, we estimated outcome differences for students who
had access to centers in the second year. Second, we examined the relationship between center
attendance and outcomes. Both of these analyses address questions of interest, however, neither
of the analyses rely on the original matched treatment and comparison groups, therefore, they
3The review includes findings for intensive programs (such as programs whose purpose was to tutor students in
reading or math) that differ from those more commonly delivered during out-of-school hours by schools or
community organizations.
8
provide estimates of lower validity than the estimates presented in the body of the report. For
this reason, they are presented in the appendix.
9
II. Implementation and Impacts at Elementary School Centers
The addition of five grantees and more than 1,300 students to the study?s sample allows us
to reexamine the 21st Century program?s impacts on elementary school students after one school
year with enhanced statistical power. This chapter provides an overview of the features of
elementary school centers in the study, focusing on features that may be linked to impacts. It
then examines student attendance at centers, impacts for the full student sample, and impacts for
different types of students.
The estimates show that students attended centers about two days a week on average and
that the students were more likely to be at school and with adults who were not their parents
during after-school hours. Students in the control group were more likely to be at home and with
a parent after school. Centers did not improve student academic achievement as measured by
homework completion, grades, and reading test scores. These findings generally are consistent
with findings presented in the first report, which were based on data for seven sites (Dynarski et
al. 2003). One impact that differs from the first year is that students who attended centers
reported feeling safer after school.4
A. Features of Elementary School 21st Century Centers
Three features of the 26 elementary school centers in the study are especially useful for
understanding implementation and impacts: (1) goals and structures of centers, (2) activities and
service offerings, and (3) characteristics of center staff members.5 Understanding program goals
4The first report had similar impact estimates, but the impacts were statistically insignificant.
5Throughout the report, a ?center? refers to after-school services provided in one school, and a ?site? refers to
the group of centers in a school district. A ?grantee? refers to a school district that received a 21st Century grant to
operate centers. A grantee differs from a site because not all centers operated by some grantees were in the study.
10
Percentage of Project Directors Indicating Item
as One of Three Most Important Objectives
Provide a Safe, Supervised After-School Environment 66%
Provide Tutoring/Other Activities to Enhance Students?
Ability to Meet Specific Academic Goals 50%
Provide Academic Enrichment 33%
Enrich Relationship Between Parents and Schools 25%
Create a Positive Relationship Between Students and Their
Schools 16%
Provide Cultural Opportunities not Available at Home or in
the Community 16%
Improve Homework Completion 8%
Enhance Social Development 8%
SOURCE: Project Director Survey. Sample size is 12.
NOTE: Percentages do not sum to 100 because project directors could
indicate up to three ?most important? objectives.
can inform the impact analysis by highlighting the outcomes that may be affected by centers. If
an important objective of centers was to improve student academic achievement, assessing
whether centers improved academic outcomes is appropriate. Similarly, the activities and
services offered by centers and the types of staff members who work with students are important
for understanding how centers could affect students.
1. Center Goals and Structure
Providing students with a safe place after school and helping them improve academically
were the two most frequently cited objectives for centers, based on responses to questionnaires
completed by center administrators. These objectives mirrored the reasons parents most
frequently gave for having their
child attend a 21st Century
center?that the center would ?help
my child do better in school?
(79 percent of parents) and ?it is a
safe place for my child after
school? (63 percent of parents).
Improving relationships between
schools and parents also was cited
as a major objective by center
administrators.
(continued)
For example, some grantees operated centers in both elementary and middle schools, and the study may have
included only the elementary school centers or only the middle school centers.
11
Examples of Academic Activities in
21st Century Centers| Hands-on lessons, such as making exact
change, solving pre-algebra problems| Educational technology packages to
reinforce basic skills or supplement
classroom instruction| Practice drills in addition, subtraction,
multiplication, phonics| Preparation for standardized tests, such
as taking and reviewing practice tests,
completing worksheets related to
standardized tests
Centers typically were open during after-school hours for four or five school days a week
(half were not open on Fridays) and for two to three hours a day. Centers often divided the afterschool
time into roughly hour-long sessions. The first session typically was used for students to
eat a snack and do their homework. The second session might be for another academic activity,
such as students? working on computers or with teachers on their basic skills. The third session
often would be for development or recreational activities, such as arts and crafts, interpersonal
skill building, or sports. In three-quarters of the centers, students were required to attend
academic activities, but typically could choose their activity for the last session of the day or on
Friday (for centers that were open on Fridays).6
2. Activities and Services
Eighty-five percent of centers offered homework assistance. About half of the centers used
certified teachers for homework sessions and half used paraprofessionals (one site had certified
teachers circulate among homework sessions
monitored by paraprofessionals), with students
working individually or in small groups.
Homework help sessions generally were
unstructured, with students not required to work
on or complete their homework. Homework
help was more structured in one-quarter of the
centers. For example, one center required
students to complete their homework before they could participate in other activities, and three
6At one site, students attended only when they were accompanied by a parent or grandparent, and could choose
all their activities while the adult participated in technology-oriented instruction. Because the structure of this
grantee?s program differed from others in the study, we also estimated impacts excluding the grantee and found that
the main findings were not affected.
12
sites tracked students? homework assignments. Another center that served children from several
elementary schools used a homework log that students completed and their classroom teachers
signed. If students said they did not have homework and their logs were unsigned (which
occurred frequently), the center faxed their names to their schools to confirm they had no
homework. Another site also asked teachers to initial a homework log. If students came to the
center without an initialed homework log, staff members checked the classrooms to see if
homework assignments had been posted. However, the procedures depended on cooperation
between after-school center staff members and regular teachers.
Eighty-five percent of centers also had academic activities, such as teaching or tutoring, in
addition to, or instead of, homework help. Some centers combined academic activities with
homework sessions, while other centers set up distinct sessions. Most centers designed their
academic activities, but some used commercially available packages. Certified teachers usually
led the activities, sometimes with the help of an aide. Most centers provided activities designed
to help students improve their reading and math skills. For example, in one academic activity
observed by a site visitor, the teacher asked 2nd grade students to identify compound words in a
storybook. In another center, 5th graders used manipulatives to solve pre-algebra problems. In a
third center, 3rd grade students separated into three groups; while one group worked on reading
with the aid of a tutor, another group worked independently on math worksheets, and the third
group worked with a teacher to identify geometric shapes. A few centers helped students prepare
for standardized tests by giving them practice tests or by working on skills covered by the tests.
Almost all centers (92 percent) offered recreational activities, which sometimes were
unstructured?for example, free time, board games, or access to the computer lab. Most centers
gave students the opportunity to use computers to improve their academic skills or access the
13
Internet to work on school projects. Some recreational activities were more structured, such as
karate, basketball, and other organized sports that had coaches or instructors.
Most centers (69 percent) also offered activities to develop interpersonal skills. Activities
included workshops or discussions on building leadership skills, resolving conflicts, or resisting
drugs and alcohol. Paraprofessionals or community members typically led these activities.
Cultural activities, such as arts and music, also were common.
3. Characteristics of Center Staff
A mix of certified teachers, paraprofessionals, and community members staffed elementary
school centers. Centers had an average of 16 paid staff members on their rosters. Center
coordinators worked an average of four-and-a-half days a week for four hours a day and earned
just over $19 per hour. Other staff members worked an average of about four days per week for
three hours a day and earned $15 per hour. The average student-staff ratio across the centers was
about 7 to 1, ranging from about 4 to 1 to as high as 13 to 1.7 For most of the staff, the afterschool
job was a second job (71 percent of coordinators and 78 percent of other staff members
reported that they had another job) and teaching was most often cited as the first job.
B. Attendance at Centers
Table II.1 indicates that students attended 63 days a year, or about 2 days a week (centers
were open for 30 weeks on average). About one-fourth of students attended centers fewer than
25 days, half of students attended 26 to 100 days, and one-fourth of students attended more than
100 days. Almost 60 percent of participants attended less than half the days that centers were
open.
7These estimates are based on the total number of students enrolled in a center and the total number of paid
staff working with students; more precise estimates are difficult because of variations in the number of students and
staff at a center on a given day.
14
Table II.1
21st Century Elementary School Center Attendance, Year 1
Average Days Attended in School Year a 62.5
Number of Days Attended Percent of Students
1 to 25 Days 26.4
26 to 50 Days 18.9
51 to 75 Days 14.8
76 to 100 Days 16.4
101 to 125 Days 23.5
Attendance Rate b Percent of Participants
10 Percent or less 19.3
11 to 25 Percent 14.5
26 to 50 Percent 23.1
51 to 70 Percent 19.5
71 to 85 Percent 15.4
86 to 100 Percent 8.3
SOURCE: Center Attendance Records. Sample size is 980 students.
NOTE: Students who did not attend centers at least one day (19.5 percent of the treatment group)
are excluded from the table.
a Average number of days is calculated for center participants who attended the center at least one
day after being randomly assigned to the center. Students who did not participate are not included
in these calculations.
b The attendance rate is the number of days participants attended as a proportion of the number of
days centers were open, according to grantee annual performance reports.
Figure II.1 plots average days attended each week during the school year. The pattern of
attendance is relatively flat, with sharp dips around major holidays.
15
SOURCE: Center Attendance Records.
NOTE: Students who transferred during the school year are not included in the figure.
Additional analysis found large differences in average student attendance across grantees.
For example, one grantee had average student attendance of 44 days a year, whereas another had
average student attendance of 78 days a year. Variations in average attendance across grantees
explained much of the variation in student attendance.8
Few student characteristics were related to attendance at centers. We investigated
15 characteristics, only 3 of which were statistically significant. Students in younger grades
(grades K through 2), students who were not on public assistance, and students who had not
moved frequently in the past attended more often.
C. Impacts of Centers
Before turning to the impact estimates, it is useful to describe the treatment and control
groups that are the basis for the estimates. Table II.2 shows that the treatment and control groups
were similar on a range of characteristics, such as gender, grade level, mother?s age, absences,
8Models of attendance explained 19 percent of its variation, with 17 percent of the variation in attendance
related to grantees, and 2 percent related to student characteristics.
Figure II.1
Days Attended Per Week, Year 1
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
October November December January February March April
Average Number of Days Attended
16
suspensions, and reading test scores, which is typical when random assignment is used. One
characteristic differed at the 95 percent confidence level; students in the treatment group were
more likely to report doing their homework. Considering the large number of variables reported
in the table, some differences naturally would arise by chance, but the differences do not suggest
that the treatment group was more or less advantaged than the control group. This same caution
applies to the impact estimates reported in this chapter; because a large number of statistical tests
were conducted, some findings may be significant by chance.
Follow-up response rates were high for student surveys (around 90 percent) but lower for
parent surveys (75 percent), teacher surveys (79 percent), and student tests (82 percent). The
study used nonresponse weights to adjust for possible differences in the characteristics of followup
respondents in the treatment and control groups. (See Appendix A for a detailed description
of the weights.)
The study also looked at attendance lists to detect whether control-group students attended
centers. In principle, none of the control-group students would have attended centers. However,
about nine percent of control-group students were found in the attendance records and, overall,
the control group averaged 4 days of center attendance (compared to 63 days for the treatment
group). During the enrollment period, the study detected some crossing over and corrected it.
However, some crossing over was detected only after time had passed, and the study did not try
to prevent students who had begun attending from continuing to attend centers.
Impacts were estimated using regression models to adjust for baseline differences and to
improve the precision of the estimates. The study also used impact-estimation procedures to
adjust for crossing over and for treatment group students not attending centers after going
through random assignment. Appendix B provides details on the procedures used to estimate
impacts, including the methods used to adjust for crossover by control students and
17
Table II.2
Characteristics of Treatment and Control Group Students at Baseline,
Elementary School Centers
Characteristic
Treatment
Group
Control
Group p-valuea
Demographics
Gender
Male 48.0 49.6 0.48
Female 52.0 50.4 0.48
Race/Ethnicity
White (non-Hispanic) 6.6 4.8 0.06
Black (non-Hispanic) 54.2 55.0 0.06
Hispanic 35.3 36.2 0.06
Other 1.0 2.2 0.06
Mixed 2.9 1.7 0.06
Grade Level (percentages)
Kindergarten 10.5 10.3 0.95
1st grade 17.9 18.2 0.95
2nd grade 17.7 19.1 0.95
3rd grade 14.9 13.7 0.95
4th grade 16.6 17.1 0.95
5th grade 16.3 16.0 0.95
6th grade 6.2 5.7 0.95
Mother?s Age (Years) 34.7 34.3 0.28
Academic and Other Outcomes at Baseline
SAT-9 Reading Score (Percentile) 32.6 30.4 0.18
Number of Absences from School 6.4 6.5 0.87
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended At Least Once in Previous
School Year 2.9 3.0 0.93
Percentage of Students Who Report Feeling the Following Level of Safety
after School Up Until Dinnertime:
Very safe 73.4 74.9 0.06
Somewhat safe 25.1 21.3 0.06
Not at all safe 1.9 3.8 0.06
Percentage of Students Who Report Doing the Homework Teachers Assign 42.9 38.8 0.04**
Sample Sizeb 1,247 1,041
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey, School Records.
aThe p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program
participants and control group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .01, the difference is significant
at the 1 percent level. If the p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and so on. Chi-squared
tests were conducted for categorical variables; for other variables, t-tests were conducted.
bSample sizes differ depending on the data source. Sample sizes for demographic variables range from 746 to 1,041 for
treatments and 936 to 1,247 for controls. Sample sizes on academic and other outcomes at baseline range from 501 to 721 for
treatments and 567 to 847 for controls.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
18
nonparticipation by treatment students. Appendix C presents impacts based on simple treatmentcontrol
differences, which generally are similar in magnitude and statistical significance to the
impacts presented in the text.
1. Centers Affected Who Students Were With and Where Students Were After School
Centers shifted who students were with during after-school hours.9 Centers reduced the
likelihood that students were with their parents and older siblings after school, and increased the
likelihood that students were with other adults (Table II.3).10 For example, 65 percent of
treatment students were with parents after school at least 3 days in a typical week, compared
with 75 percent of control students (effect size of .23). Forty-six percent of treatment students
were with other adults after school at least 3 days in a typical week, compared with 35 percent of
control students (effect size of .23).11
Centers did not reduce the frequency of self-care reported by students? parents. For the selfcare
estimate reported in the table, students were defined as being in self-care if, for at least three
days in a typical week, their parents said they were not with a parent, another adult, or an older
sibling. Using this definition, just over 1 percent of treatment (and control) students were in selfcare
in a typical week. Defining self-care in other ways, such as whether students were home
9The first report used a hierarchy for the supervision categories in which the categories summed to 100 percent
(a student who indicated that he was with a parent and a sibling after school was coded as being supervised by a
parent). This report does not use a hierarchy and supervision categories therefore do not sum to 100 percent because
students can be with different people after school (parents, other adults, siblings, and so on). This supervision
construct more accurately captures the different types of supervision that students experience, but the overlap
between categories makes interpreting impacts more difficult because changes in supervision in one category are not
necessarily offset by changes in another category.
10We also examined impacts on sibling care using the hierarchical definition used in the first report, and found
that treatment students were less likely to be supervised by siblings after school.
11Tables and text indicate significance at 1 and 5 percent levels. The tables show two types of impact
estimates. The first estimates are ?intent to treat? estimates, which use the full treatment and control groups. The
second estimates, which are shown in the column labeled ?Estimated Impact on Participants,? are the impacts after
adjusting for the percentage of treatments who did not attend centers (?no-shows?) and the percentage of controls
who attended centers (?crossovers?).
19
Table II.3
Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision, and Activities After School, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
Treatment
Group
Control
Group
Estimated
Impact
Estimated
Impact on
Participants
Percentage of Students with the Following Individuals at Least Three Days After
School in a Typical Week, According to Parent Reports:
Self-carea 1.3 1.2 0.1 -0.1
Parent 64.9 75.3 -10.4*** -13.0***
Nonparent adult 45.5 34.5 11.0*** 14.4***
Sibling 20.8 26.3 -5.5** -6.3
Mixed (not in any one category for at least three days) 2.2 1.5 0.7 1.0
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at Least Three
Days in a Typical Week, According to Parent Reports:
Own home 61.2 79.5 -18.3*** -23.8***
Someone else?s home 13.5 16.0 -2.4 -2.7
School or other place for activities 52.3 30.5 21.8*** 29.3***
Somewhere to ?hang out? 3.9 4.1 -0.3 -0.2
Mixed location (not in one location for at least three days) 1.3 0.9 0.4 0.7
Employment of Mother:
Fulltime 55.4 52.2 3.2 4.8
Parttime 15.4 15.7 -0.3 0.0
Looking for work 13.9 11.3 2.6 2.8
Not in labor force 15.3 20.8 -5.5** -7.6**
Mean Number of Days Stayed After School for Activities in a Typical Week,
According to Parent Reports 2.1 0.8 1.3*** 1.7***
Percentage of Students in the Following Activities after School at Least One Day in
the Prior Week, According to Parent Reports:
Homework 84.2 89.3 -5.1** -7.6***
Tutoring 27.2 16.8 10.4*** 12.5***
Non-homework reading, writing, or science activities 57.9 61.9 -4.0 -5.5
School activities (band, drama, etc.) 21.2 17.2 4.1 6.0
Lessons (music, art, dance, etc.) 22.8 19.2 3.7 5.8
Organized sports 23.0 25.9 -2.9 -2.9
Clubs (Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, etc.) 16.0 15.9 0.2 -0.1
Activities at church, temple, or mosque 30.2 28.7 1.5 3.0
Watched TV or videos 78.5 82.8 -4.3 -5.0
Surfed the Internet or did other things on the computer 38.9 36.0 2.9 4.2
?Hung out? with friends 44.8 45.7 -0.9 -0.7
Did chores around the house 74.0 78.6 -4.6 -5.5
Took care of a brother or sister 16.9 21.8 -4.9** -4.9
Mean Time Students Reported Watching Television in the Past Day (Hours) 2.1 1.9 0.2 0.3
Mean Time Students Reported Reading for Fun in the Past Day (Hours) 0.3 0.3 0.0 1.2
Sample Sizeb 953 766
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
NOTE: The tables show two types of impact estimates: (1) ?intent to treat? estimates (in the "Estimated Impact" column) use the full
treatment and control groups and (2) impacts on participants (in the ?Estimated Impact on Participants? column) are the impacts after
adjusting for the percentage of treatments who did not attend centers (?no-shows?) and the percentage of controls who attended
centers (?cross-overs?). The percentages and mean values of outcomes for treatment and control students have been regressionadjusted
for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regression included students? demographic
characteristics, students? baseline test scores, and school attendance. Weights are used to adjust impact estimates for nonresponse.
Impacts on participants are estimated using an instrumental variables method, and the significance levels may differ from significance
levels of the intent-to-treat estimates. Appendix B describes methods used to estimate impacts. Percentages may not sum to 100
because of rounding.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
Table II.3 (continued)
20
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse. Sample sizes for student-reported outcomes are 589 for the treatment group and 465
for the control group. Only students in third grade and above completed a student survey.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
21
alone at all during the week, or were home alone three or more days during the week, changed
the levels of self-care (estimates range from 1 to 5 percent) but did not affect the impact
estimates. (Appendix C reports impact estimates for alternative measures of self-care.)12
However, the study?s various measures of self-care are not sensitive to whether centers affected
the total time students may have been in self-care, which would have required detailed
information about the time that students spent with various people after school, which the study
did not collect.13
Treatment students were more likely to be at school or another place outside the home
during after-school hours (Table II.3). Fifty-two percent of treatment-group students were at
school or another place outside the home at least three days in a typical week, compared with
31 percent of control-group students (effect size of .48). Treatment students were less likely to
be at home during the after-school hours, with 80 percent of control students in their own homes
after school at least 3 days in a typical week, compared with 61 percent of treatment students
(effect size of .43).
2. Centers Increased How Many Mothers Worked or Looked for Work
Mothers of students in the treatment group were more likely than mothers of students in the
control group to be ?in the labor force,? which includes working full time, working part time, or
looking for work (effect size of .15).14 No single measure of labor force status increased by a
12The incidence of self-care reported here is roughly consistent with national data. For example, in the
National Household Education Survey, 2 percent of students in grades K to 2 and 8 percent of students in grades 3 to
5 were reported to be in self-care (Kleiner et al. 2004).
13A regression model to identify factors related to self-care found that older students (5th and 6th graders),
students in one-parent households, and students in high-income households were more likely to be in self-care. Data
from the National Survey of American Families and National Household Education Survey reported similar patterns
(Vandivere et al. 2003; Kleiner et al. 2004).
14Whether mothers worked was related to after-school supervision. Students whose mothers worked full-time
were less likely to be with a parent after school, and students whose mothers were looking for work or were not in
the labor force were more likely to be with a parent after school. The National Household Education Survey found
similar patterns (Kleiner et al. 2004).
22
statistically significant margin, but the shift from being out of the labor force to being in the
labor force was statistically significant.15
3. Centers Did Not Increase Working on or Completing Homework
Treatment students were not more likely to work on or complete their homework, and some
estimates suggested that attending centers may have reduced completing homework. For
example, parents of treatment-group students reported that their child was less likely to work on
homework after school (Table II.3).16
A similar mixed pattern was evident for whether students completed their homework.
Teachers reported (Table II.4) that treatment-group students were less likely than control-group
students to ?often? complete their homework (53 percent of treatment students compared to
59 percent of control students, effect size is .12).17 As with working on homework, however,
treatment students were as likely as control students to report that they had completed their
homework, but the student sample (which excludes students in grades K to 2) is smaller than the
teacher sample, and its statistical precision is lower.
The study gathered other data from student questionnaires that provide some basis for
understanding the lack of differences in whether students worked on or completed their
homework. In particular, Table II.5 shows that the availability of homework help in the afterschool
programs did not create differences in whether students had their homework checked,
were asked whether it had been completed, or had parts of it explained to them by a parent or
15The study did not gather information about parental employment at baseline.
16Parents of treatment-group students reported that their child was more likely to be tutored after school.
Because some parents may have considered receiving help from an adult on homework to be a form of tutoring, we
also examined impacts on whether parents reported that students worked on homework or received tutoring in the
after-school program. The results showed that parents of treatment students were less likely to report their child
participating in either homework or tutoring.
17The first report had similar impact estimates, but the impacts were statistically insignificant.
23
Table II.4
Impacts on Academic and Other In-School Outcomes, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
Treatment
Group Control Group
Estimated
Impact
Estimated
Impact on
Participants
Mean Number of Days Student Was:
Absent 7.9 8.0 0.0 -0.1
Late 4.5 4.2 0.3 0.5
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That they Are
?Often? Late for Class 9.3 6.6 2.6 3.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They ?Often? or
?Always? Complete the Homework Teachers Assigna 81.1 80.3 0.8 0.9
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That They ?Often?
Complete Their Homework 53.4 59.2 -5.8** -8.3**
Mean Amount of Time Students Spent Doing Homework
the Last Time They Had Homework (hours)a 0.7 0.8 -0.1 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
the Following:
?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That Student Completes
Assignments to the Teacher?s Satisfaction 53.1 56.5 -3.3 -5.4
Student Achieves at ?Above Average? or ?Very High?
Level 24.8 28.4 -3.6 -4.7
?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That Student Comes to School
Prepared and Ready to Learn 56.5 59.8 -3.3 -5.3
Student ?Usually Tries Hard? in Reading or English 52.1 49.0 3.1 3.7
Student ?Often? Performs at or Above Their Ability 39.6 40.1 -0.5 -0.9
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? That Their Child Works Hard at School 81.1 84.1 -2.9 -5.3
Level of Effort Compositeb (Mean) 3.5 3.6 -0.1 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported Doing
the Following ?Two or More Times?:
Disciplining the child for misbehaving 50.4 45.4 5.0 7.1
Sending child to the office for misbehaving 12.8 11.1 1.6 2.2
Giving child detention 22.3 19.0 3.3 5.1
Calling parents about child?s behavior 27.5 24.5 3.1 3.8
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended
During Most Recent School Year 6.2 4.4 1.8 1.7
Mean Grade:
Math 81.1 80.9 0.3 0.5
English/language arts 82.0 81.9 0.1 0.2
Science 82.2 82.0 0.2 0.3
Social studies/history 81.5 81.2 0.4 0.6
Mean Reading Test Score 35.0 35.9 -0.9 -0.7
Reading Confidence Compositec (Mean) 3.1 3.0 0.0 0.1
Sample Sized 968 812
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey, School Records, Teacher Survey.
NOTE: The tables show two types of impact estimates: (1) ?intent to treat? estimates (in the "Estimated Impact" column) use the full
treatment and control groups and (2) impacts on participants (in the ?Estimated Impact on Participants? column) are the impacts after
adjusting for the percentage of treatments who did not attend centers (?no-shows?) and the percentage of controls who attended
centers (?cross-overs?). The percentages and mean values of outcomes for treatment and control students have been regressionadjusted
for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regression included students? demographic
characteristics, students? baseline test scores, and school attendance. Weights are used to adjust impact estimates for nonresponse.
Impacts on participants are estimated using an instrumental variables method, and the significance levels may differ from significance
levels of the intent-to-treat estimates. Appendix B describes methods used to estimate impacts.
Table II.4 (continued)
24
aThe original set of seven sites was not asked these questions in the first year of the study.
bThe level of effort composite is based on five teacher-reported items regarding student: (1) effort, (2) performance at ability level,
(3) attentiveness, (4) participation, and (5) volunteering. Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low
level, and a value of 5 indicates a high level.
cThe reading confidence composite is based on student reports on three items: (1) reading is hard to learn, (2) they are a good reader, and (3) they
would read better if they had more help. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level, and a
value of 4 indicates a high level.
dSample sizes differ for some outcomes. For teacher-reported outcomes, the sample sizes are 968 treatment-group members and 812 control
group members; for student-reported outcomes, the sample sizes are 578 treatment-group members and 462 control-group members; for records
outcomes, the sample sizes range from 632 to 1038 for treatment-group members and from 504 to 866 for control-group members; for
homework questions administered only to new sites, the sample sizes are 325 treatment-group members and 320 control-group members; for
test scores, sample sizes are 1,039 for treatments and 848 for controls.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
25
Table II.5
Impacts on Types of Homework Assistance, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
Treatment
Group
Control
Group
Estimated
Impact
Estimated
Impact on
Participants
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent ?Often?
or ?Always?: a
Asks if homework is complete 85.4 82.3 3.1 3.1
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 76.3 76.8 -0.5 -0.3
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 72.3 76.3 -4.0 -5.2
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 71.6 74.0 -2.4 -3.8
Percentage of Students Who Reported That an Adult Who Is Not
Their Parent ?Often? or ?Always?: a
Asks if homework is complete 55.5 57.9 -2.4 -3.2
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 51.7 53.8 -2.1 -3.2
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 48.8 54.1 -5.2 -6.6
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 54.8 52.9 2.0 2.3
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent or an
Adult Who Is Not Their Parent ?Often? or ?Always?: a
Asks if homework is complete 90.7 86.6 4.1 4.7
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 82.2 82.3 -0.1 -0.1
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 79.7 81.9 -2.2 -3.2
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 79.5 81.7 -2.2 -3.1
Percentage of Students Who Were Asked to Correct Parts of
Homework by:a
Parent 90.8 89.5 1.3 1.5
An adult who is not their parent 75.0 76.0 -1.0 -1.2
A parent or an adult who is not their parent 91.3 93.8 -2.6 -3.2
Sample Sizeb 325 320
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: The tables show two types of impact estimates: (1) ?intent to treat? estimates (in the "Estimated Impact" column) use
the full treatment and control groups and (2) impacts on participants (in the ?Estimated Impact on Participants?
column) are the impacts after adjusting for the percentage of treatments who did not attend centers (?no-shows?) and
the percentage of controls who attended centers (?cross-overs?). The percentages and mean values of outcomes for
treatment and control students have been regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control
variables in the regression included students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, and school
attendance. Weights are used to adjust impact estimates for nonresponse. Impacts on participants are estimated using
an instrumental variables method, and the significance levels may differ from significance levels of the intent-to-treat
estimates. Appendix B describes methods used to estimate impacts.
aStudents in the original set of seven sites were not asked these questions in the first year of the study.
b
Sample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse. Sample sizes in this table are smaller than the other elementaryschool
impact tables because all outcomes in the table are from the student survey, which was not administered to students in
grades K-2.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
26
other adult. Evidently, although help with homework was a common activity in centers, parents
continued to play an active role in helping with homework. Also, other adults? helping with
homework was as common for control-group students as for treatment-group students. The lack
of differences in who helped students with homework and in the kind of help they provided may
explain the lack of differences in whether students worked on homework or completed it.
Site visitors also observed features of centers that may have contributed to their limited
effect on homework completion. Some centers set aside only about 20 minutes for homework,
which may not have been adequate for students to complete it. Whether program staff members
knew what homework had been assigned also varied widely. Most sites had no procedures for
monitoring homework assignments. Two of the three sites that had monitoring procedures relied
on teachers to communicate assignments to center staffers. Indications were that teachers did not
consistently do so. In some centers, site visitors observed homework sessions in which students
were not engaged, program staff members made little effort to maintain order, and students
received help only if they asked questions or made an effort to seek out help from staffers.18
4. Centers Did Not Improve Academic Outcomes
Centers did not improve reading test scores and grades in math, English, science, or social
studies (Table II.4).19 Treatment students had an average reading score of 35.0 (in percentiles)
on the Stanford Achievement Test?Version 9 (SAT-9) and control students had an average
18The After School Corporation?s evaluation noted that the quality of homework help was low in many
programs it studied, which it attributed to a lack of skills and knowledge among young and often part-time staffers
who provided the help (Reisner et al. 2001). The Forum for Youth Investment characterized homework help in
after-school programs as ?spotty at best? Forum for Youth Investment (2003).
19The sample sizes enabled the study to have reasonable power to detect an effect size of 0.10 for reading test
scores, which is equivalent to a change in reading scores of 3.2 percentile points.
27
reading score of 35.9.20 No impacts were evident for student effort and preparedness for class
(as reported by teachers) or for absenteeism (as reported in student records).
5. Centers Increased Feelings of Safety
Centers reduced whether students felt unsafe after school (Table II.6). Two percent of
treatment students reported feeling ?not at all safe? after school, compared to five percent of
controls (effect size of .15).21 The increase in feelings of safety indicates that centers were
meeting an objective that many indicated was a priority for them (see Section A.1).
6. Centers Increased Some Types of Parent Involvement
Parents of treatment students were more likely to help their child with homework, to ask
about their child?s class work, and to attend after-school events (Table II.6). The increase in
parents? helping with homework seems counterintuitive for programs that provided homework
help, but nonetheless is a form of involvement that may reflect greater parental engagement in
their child?s education.22 Forty-six percent of parents of treatment students attended at least
three after-school events in the past year, compared to 36 percent of parents of control students
(effect size of .20). Centers did not improve attendance at school open houses or parent-teacher
organization meetings, or the extent to which parents volunteered at school.
20Baseline reading scores were imputed by calculating the mean baseline reading score among students with a
baseline score and assigning the mean score to students who were missing the baseline score. Handling missing
baseline reading scores in other ways, such as estimating impacts only for students with baseline reading scores and
excluding the baseline reading score from the list of regressors, did not change the findings.
21The first report had similar impact estimates, but the impacts were statistically insignificant.
22The results on parents? helping with homework in Table II.6, which are based on data reported by parents,
appear somewhat at odds with the results in Table II.5, which are based on data reported by the smaller sample of
students. However, the items in Table II.6 focus more on the frequency of asking about homework and checking it
three or more times a week, which can differ from whether parents asked about or checked homework at all.
28
Table II.6
Impacts on Other Outcomes, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
Treatment
Group Control Group
Estimated
Impact
Estimated
Impact on
Participants
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels
of Safety After School up Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe 76.8 75.3 1.5 0.6
Somewhat safe 21.7 20.3 1.4 3.2
Not at all safe 1.5 4.5 -3.0** -3.8
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Are ?Somewhat
True? or ?Very True?:
They get along with others their age 81.0 86.0 -5.1 -8.5**
They feel left out of things 32.5 32.4 0.1 -0.5
Percentage of Students Who Reported Doing the Following ?Some?
or ?A Lot?:
Help another student in school 75.2 79.4 -4.2 -6.1
Help another student after school 60.1 52.2 8.0** 10.5
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or
?Excellent? on the Following:
Working with others on a team or in a group 78.8 81.6 -2.8 -2.0
Feeling bad for other people who are having difficulties 70.4 74.2 -3.9 -6.2
Believing the best about other people 79.4 79.5 -0.1 0.2
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Excellent? on the
Following:
Using a computer to look up information 48.2 46.6 1.6 3.4
Setting a goal and working to achieve it 57.2 59.1 -2.0 -2.5
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Excellent? on
Sticking to What They Believe In, Even if Their Friends Don?t Agree 56.1 56.8 -0.7 -0.8
Negative Behavior Compositea 1.6 1.7 0.0 0.0
Percentage of Students Whose Parents:
Helped their child with homework at least three times
last week 69.1 60.7 8.4*** 8.9**
Checked on their child?s homework completion at least three
times last week 92.4 90.3 2.1 2.2
Asked their child about things they were doing in class
at least seven times last month 70.4 64.1 6.3** 8.1
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following
at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 42.3 42.3 0.0 0.3
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 50.1 47.6 2.6 3.1
Attended an after-school event 45.6 36.3 9.2*** 12.4***
Volunteered to help out at school 29.9 33.9 -4.1 -4.7
Sample Sizeb 862 677
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: The tables show two types of impact estimates: (1) ?intent to treat? estimates (in the "Estimated Impact" column) use the full
treatment and control groups and (2) impacts on participants (in the ?Estimated Impact on Participants? column) are the impacts
after adjusting for the percentage of treatments who did not attend centers (?no-shows?) and the percentage of controls who
attended centers (?cross-overs?). The percentages and mean values of outcomes for treatment and control students have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regression included students?
demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, and school attendance. Weights are used to adjust impact estimates for
nonresponse. Impacts on participants are estimated using an instrumental variables method, and the significance levels may differ
from significance levels of the intent-to-treat estimates. Appendix B describes methods used to estimate impacts.
Table II.6 (continued)
29
aThe negative behavior composite is based on student responses to five questions regarding how often they: (1) break something on purpose, (2)
punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, and (5) give a teacher a ?hard time.? Values on these items range
from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level, while a value of 4 indicates a high level. Percentages may not sum to 100
because of rounding.
bSample sizes differ for outcomes depending on the source. For some parent-reported outcomes, the sample sizes are 841 treatment group
members and 663 control-group members; for student-reported outcomes, the sample sizes are 583 treatment-group members and 468 control
group members.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
30
7. Few Improvements in Social and Interpersonal Outcomes
Centers did not improve most of the social and interpersonal skills that the study assessed.
Treatment students were no more likely than control students to report getting along with others
their age, to rate themselves highly on working with others on a team or in a group, or to rate
themselves highly on sticking to their beliefs even if their friends do not agree (Table II.6).
Treatment students were more likely to report helping other students after school (effect size of
.16), which may reflect interactions students had with each other after school.
8. Few Impacts for Subgroups
It is possible that programs might be more effective with some types of students; if this is
the case, programs could target their services to those students. For example, centers may be
interested in targeting reading instruction to younger students, or academic help to students with
low test scores. The study team estimated impacts for six subgroups defined by student or parent
characteristics: (1) grade level, (2) whether students were above or below the median reading
test score at baseline, (3) whether students were above or below the median value of the
discipline composite variable at baseline (4) student race and ethnicity, (5) student gender, and
(6) whether students lived in two-parent or one-parent households (see Tables II.7a through
II.8b).23 The full set of subgroup impacts estimated is presented in Appendix C; a smaller set of
tables, which focus on key outcomes and subgroups, is presented here.
Tables II.7b and II.8b show that program impacts differed for students from two-parent
households compared to students from single-parent families for some outcomes. The number of
23We also estimated impacts for a subgroup defined by whether students participated in after-school programs
(the 21st Century program or another after-school program) in the spring prior to the start of the study, to assess
whether previous after-school program participation was associated with impacts. Subgroup impacts were not
significantly different for students who had and students who had not participated in after-school programs.
31
Table II.7A
Impacts on Location and Care After School, Student Effort, Maternal Employment, and Student Discipline Outcomes for White, Black, and
Hispanic Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
White (Non-Hispanic) Black (Non-Hispanic) Hispanic
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Percentage of Students in the
Following Locations After School
at Least 3 Days in Typical Week
(According to Parents):
Own home 62.4 91.9 -29.5*** 57.8 75.6 -17.8*** 72.9 88.2 -15.3***
Someone else?s home 5.8 8.3 -2.5 17.3 15.8 1.5 10.2 16.2 -6.0
School or other place for
activities 46.2 20.8 25.5*** 55.3 29.8 25.6*** 43.5 17.9 25.6***
Somewhere to ?hang out? 4.5 7.6 -3.1 4.3 1.3 3.1** 1.1 0.6 0.4
Mixed (no one location for at
least 3 days) 3.1 0.3 2.8 0.5 1.2 -0.6 1.8 0.3 1.5
Percentage of Students with the
Following Individuals After School
at Least 3 Days in Typical Week
(According to Parents):
Self-carea 0.0 0.0 n.a.b 2.0 1.6 0.4 0.7 0.3 0.4
Parent 77.3 87.6 -10.3 60.1 71.9 -11.8*** 78.7 78.8 0.0
Non-parent adult 38.5 25.6 12.9 46.4 32.1 14.3*** 38.0 32.7 5.3
Sibling 5.9 12.3 -6.5 21.1 21.8 -0.7 25.7 37.1 -11.4**
Mixed (no one category for at
least 3 days) 2.6 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.9 0.0 0.6 2.0 -1.4
Employment of Mother:
Full-time 54.4 42.4 12.0 54.1 54.6 -0.5 51.9 44.8 7.1
Part-time 12.8 20.5 -7.7 18.6 14.9 3.7 10.6 18.3 -7.6
Looking for work 13.1 9.8 3.3 13.3 12.2 1.2 19.6 11.4 8.2
Not in labor force 19.8 27.3 -7.6 14.0 18.3 -4.4 17.9 25.5 -7.6
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly
Agree? that the Student Completes
Assignments to Their Satisfaction 64.2 58.5 5.7 52.0 54.9 -2.9 54.5 62.7 -8.2
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers Reported that the Child
?Often? Performs at or Above
His/Her Ability 57.7 50.2 7.5 38.5 37.0 1.5 46.3 50.0 -3.7
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort
Composite (Mean) 3.9 3.7 0.2 3.5 3.6 -0.1 3.8 3.8 0.0
Student-Reported Disciplinary
Problems Composite (Mean) 1.3 1.3 0.0 1.7 1.6 0.1 1.3 1.6 -0.2
Percentage of Students Who
Were Suspended 7.7 0.0 7.7 6.8 3.5 3.3 0.3 4.6 -4.2**
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 58 474 273
Teacher-reported outcomes 95 739 464
School records outcomes
(suspensions) 50
531
227
Parent-reported outcomes 88 843 474
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated subgroup
impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Percentages may not
sum to 100 because of rounding.
a
Students are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
bNo white students were reported to be in self-care.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
32
Table II.7B
Impacts on Location and Care After School, Student Effort, Maternal Employment, and Student Discipline Outcomes for Two-Parent and One-
Parent Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Two-Parent Household Structurea One-Parent Household Structurea
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Percentage of Students in the Following
Locations After School at Least 3 Days in
Typical Week (According to Parents):
Own home
62.6 81.0 -18.5*** 59.9 76.8 -16.9***
Someone else?s home 11.8 13.0 -1.3 15.8 17.1 -1.3
School or other place for activities 50.0 33.0 17.0*** 52.2 27.6 24.6***
Somewhere to ?hang out? 2.2 5.4 -3.2** 5.9 3.0 2.9
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 1.9 0.3 1.5 1.2 1.4 -0.2
Percentage of Students with the Following
Individuals After School at Least 3 Days in
Typical Week (According to Parents):
Self-careb 0.5 2.4 -1.9 1.9 0.9 1.0
Parent 68.0 75.9 -7.9 63.5 72.1 -8.6**
Non-parent adult 42.6 33.5 9.1 45.2 33.6 11.6***
Sibling 24.4 32.5 -8.1 19.9 17.8 2.1
Mixed (no one category for at least 3 days) 2.1 1.5 0.5 2.4 1.4 1.0
Employment of Mother:
Full-time 60.4 56.6 3.8 49.6 52.9 -3.4
Part-time 15.4 14.1 1.4 15.8 14.9 1.0
Looking for work 13.5 9.6 3.9 16.0 13.3 2.7
Not in labor force 10.7 19.8 -9.1** 18.6 18.9 -0.2
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree?
or ?Strongly Agree? that the Student Completes
Assignments to Their Satisfaction 56.4 60.2 -3.8 52.2 53.4 -1.2
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
Reported That They ?Often? Perform at or
Above Their Ability 40.0 49.1 -9.0 42.7 35.5 7.2
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Composite
(Mean) 3.6 3.7 -0.2 3.6 3.6 0.1
Student-Reported Disciplinary Problems
Composite (Mean) 1.5 1.5 0.1 1.6 1.7 -0.1
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended 5.6 4.5 1.2 6.0 5.9 0.2
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 396 437
Teacher-reported outcomes 647 750
School records outcomes (suspensions) 431 477
Parent-reported outcomes 797 900
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
aStudents are in the "two-parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather,
foster father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and a female parent or guardian, students are in the ?one-parent?
subgroup.
bStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
33
Table II.8A
Impacts on Student Attendance, Academic Achievement, and Other Outcomes for White, Black, and
Hispanic Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
White (Non-Hispanic) Black (Non-Hispanic) Hispanic
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Percentage of Students Who
Reported Feeling the Following
Levels of Safety After School Until
6 p.m.:
Very safe 73.0 76.3 -3.3 77.0 76.1 0.9 69.9 70.5 -0.5
Somewhat safe 27.0 23.7 3.3 20.8 22.6 -1.9 29.4 25.5 3.9
Not at all safe 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 1.2 1.0 0.6 4.0 -3.4
Mean Number of Days School
Records Indicate Student Was:
Absent 7.0 6.6 0.4 7.7 7.3 0.4 5.7 7.5 -1.8**
Late 4.5 3.5 1.0 4.9 3.9 1.0 1.6 4.0 -2.4***
Mean Class Grade:
Math 87.8 85.2 2.6 80.3 79.5 0.8 83.0 84.2 -1.2
English 87.4 83.6 3.8 81.7 81.7 -0.1 83.5 83.2 0.3
Science 88.4 83.6 4.8 81.6 81.3 0.4 85.1 84.7 0.4
Social Studies 89.4 85.4 4.0 81.9 80.3 1.7 81.3 82.4 -1.2
Mean Reading Test Score 51.7 51.3 0.4 34.3 34.9 -0.5 34.3 37.2 -2.8
Percentage of Students Who
Reported Helping Another Student
After School 70.2 55.8 14.4 65.4 50.1 15.4*** 49.7 49.2 0.5
Percentage of Students Whose
Parents Did the Following at Least
Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at
school 32.3 35.7 -3.4 46.3 39.2 7.1 51.3 54.7 -3.4
Attended a PTO meeting 48.9 31.3 17.7 49.3 48.4 0.9 54.2 47.7 6.5
Attended an after-school event 39.2 33.4 5.7 46.3 32.9 13.4*** 38.8 32.4 6.4
Volunteered to help out at
school 21.5 24.5 -3.0 30.8 34.6 -3.8 23.0 23.5 -0.6
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 58 473 271
Parent-reported outcomes 86 838 465
School records outcomes
(attendance) 86
786
468
School records outcomes
(grades) 49
679
420
School records outcomes
(reading scores) 99
785
474
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated subgroup
impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Percentages may
not sum to 100 because of rounding.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
34
Table II.8B
Impacts on Student Attendance, Academic Achievement, and Other Outcomes for Two-Parent and
One-Parent Subgroups, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Two-Parent Household Structurea One-Parent Household Structurea
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Treatment
Mean
Control
Mean
Estimated
Impact
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the
Following Levels of Safety After School Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe
74.6 67.2 7.5 70.2 81.5 -11.3
Somewhat safe 24.7 30.6 -5.9 27.8 15.5 12.3**
Not at all safe 0.7 2.2 -1.5 2.0 3.1 -1.1
Mean Number of Days School Records Indicate
Student Was:
Absent 6.6 6.9 -0.3 7.8 7.5 0.2
Late 3.8 3.6 0.2 4.4 3.5 0.9
Mean Class Grade:
Math 83.4 82.8 0.5 80.3 80.6 -0.2
English 83.9 83.3 0.6 81.5 81.9 -0.4
Science 84.4 81.3 3.0** 81.5 81.8 -0.2
Social Studies 83.4 82.1 1.2 81.1 80.6 0.5
Mean Reading Test Score 38.6 41.9 -3.3 33.8 31.6 2.2
Percentage of Students Who Report Helping Another
Student After School 56.4 44.4 12.0 62.0 54.4 7.5
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the
Following at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at school 40.0 39.5 0.4 42.4 45.8 -3.4
Attended a PTO meeting 53.2 47.9 5.3 47.0 47.1 -0.1
Attended an after-school event 47.4 33.6 13.8*** 42.3 38.6 3.7
Volunteered to help out at school 38.5 30.6 8.0 24.0 36.6 -12.6***
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 393 438
Parent-reported outcomes 710 804
School records outcomes (attendance) 693 764
School records outcomes (grades) 568 646
School records outcomes (reading scores) 693 770
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
aStudents are in the "two-parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather,
foster father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one-parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
35
impacts that differed significantly between students in two-parent and one-parent households
was large enough to be unlikely to occur by chance alone. However, being in a two-parent
household was also correlated with other factors, such as being Hispanic and having low
discipline problems at baseline.
The evaluation investigated whether controlling for membership in other subgroups
modified the two-parent findings, and found that the effects on self-care, safety, and parental
volunteering were no longer significant after controlling for other subgroups. This suggests that
being in a two-parent household per se may not be the factor that is giving rise to the differing
impacts, but that factors related to being in a two-parent household may be.21
Hispanic students in the treatment group were less likely to be suspended and late for school
less often (Tables II.7b and II.8b). However, only two sites had enough Hispanic students to be
included in the Hispanic subgroup impact analysis, and only one site had significant impacts.22
Because of these limits, it is not clear whether the results should be attributed to the Hispanic
subgroup or to the particular site in which the results were observed.
21The data indicate that students in the two-parent household subgroup were more likely to be in other
subgroups, such as the Hispanic subgroup and low baseline discipline problems subgroup, and membership in
another subgroup may be responsible for a significant estimate for the two-parent subgroup. To assess how
membership in other subgroups might affect the two-parent impacts reported in the table, we first estimated models
that controlled only for membership in the two-parent and one-parent subgroups. We then estimated models that
controlled for membership in other subgroups.
22Because impacts are estimated as an average of site impacts, the estimation procedure used a minimum
threshold of five treatment students and five control students for each site. Sites that did not meet the threshold were
excluded from the estimation for that subgroup. For example, a site with seven control students and four treatment
students for a particular subgroup would not be included in the estimation for that subgroup.

37
III. Implementation and Outcome Differences at Middle School Centers
The second year of follow-up data for middle school students enables us to examine
longer-term outcome differences between the treatment and comparison groups and assess
whether outcomes are affected after two school years. The first report examined academic,
social, emotional, and other outcomes after one school year.
This chapter begins with a discussion of program implementation at middle school centers,
focusing on key features in the study?s second year of data collection. It then analyzes patterns
of student attendance at centers during the second year and presents outcome differences
between the treatment and comparison groups and for different types of students.
Generally, the second-year findings are consistent with the first-year findings. As in the first
year, students attended centers infrequently. Students who attended in the second year averaged
about 30 days of attendance, and many did not attend at all in the second year. As in the first
year, treatment students spent more time at school during after-school hours than comparison
students, had a higher grade in one of the four subjects for which the evaluation collected grades
(in this case, social studies), and had higher educational expectations. There were no differences
between treatment and comparison students on other academic outcomes or on feelings of safety
after school. There was mixed evidence on negative behavior outcomes; treatment students had
higher levels of negative behavior than comparison students on some outcomes, but there was no
difference between the two groups on other outcomes.
38
Percent of Project Directors Indicating Item as
One of Three Most Important Objectives
Provide a Safe, Supervised After-School Environment 75%
Provide Tutoring/Other Activities to Enhance Students? Ability to
Meet Specific Academic Goals 66%
Create a Positive Relationship Between Students and Their
Schools 37%
Improve Homework Completion 33%
Enhance Social Development 33%
Provide Academic Enrichment 12%
Provide Cultural Opportunities Not Available at Home or in the
Community 8%
Provide Sports/Recreation Opportunities 8%
SOURCE: Project Director Survey. Sample size is 24 programs operating with
21st Century funds.
NOTE: Percentages do not sum to 100, because project directors could
indicate up to three ?most important? objectives.
A. Middle School Centers in the 2001-2002 School Year
This section sketches key program features in the 2001-2002 school year and discusses two
changes that were evident between the first and second school years: (1) center staff indicated
that they shifted activities and services toward more academic programming and (2) centers
experienced high rates of staff turnover.
1. Center Goals and Structure
In the 2001-2002 school year, administrators of the 21st Century centers indicated that their
major objectives were to help students improve academically and to provide a safe place for
them after school. The first year
report noted the same objectives.
Centers designed services and
activities to appeal to students who
had other options for their afterschool
time. A common approach
was to let students choose most of
their activities; more than half of
the centers let students choose all
their activities. When the centers
restricted choice, they typically
required students to participate first in an academic activity (usually a homework session) before
taking part in recreational or cultural activities.
Homework help was the most prevalent academic activity, with about 80 percent of centers
offering it. Generally, centers grouped students in common areas or in classrooms. Students
worked on their own and could ask session monitors?typically teachers or paraprofessionals?
39
for help. Most centers did not have procedures in place to monitor homework assignments or to
ensure that students completed the assigned homework. As in the visits during the first year, site
visitors noted that homework help was an opportunity for students to do homework, but not one
that students always took advantage of. Section C.2 provides more discussion of homework
issues.
Site visitors reported that 60
percent of centers offered other types
of academic activities, usually
focused on help in reading, writing,
or math. The format typically was
small-group instruction, with a teacher working with a group of students from the same grade on
particular subject matter or skill development exercises. Some centers helped students prepare
for state assessment tests, such as by administering practice tests and identifying areas in which
students needed more help.
Most centers provided recreational, cultural, and developmental activities to students. Of
these other activities, recreation was the most common. Site visitors reported that 74 percent of
centers provided recreation at least
weekly, which often involved
learning a particular game or skill
(tennis or martial arts, for example).
Centers also offered unstructured
recreation, such as basketball or
board games. Almost two-thirds of
centers had regular activities devoted to music, art, or other forms of cultural appreciation.
Examples of Academic Activities in 21st Century Centers| Teacher instruction| Educational technology packages to reinforce basic
skills or supplement classroom instruction| Practice drills and games to improve reading, writing,
long division, multiplication| Preparation for standardized tests, such as taking and
reviewing practice tests
Examples of Other Activities in 21st Century Centers| Recreation: basketball, martial arts, cheerleading,
board games, table tennis, swimming, free time in
playground or gym| Cultural enrichment: art and music classes, choir
practice, dance and drama classes, cooking classes,
trips to museums and theater, classes promoting
awareness of different cultures| Interpersonal development: team-building activities,
leadership training activities, peer mediation and
conflict resolution activities, teen discussion groups
40
Interpersonal development activities?focused on students? behavior and their relationships with
others?were the least common; 42 percent of centers offered such activities weekly or daily.
2. Centers Reported Placing Greater Emphasis on Academics
Between the first and second year, centers reported shifting activities toward academics.
Site visitors noted that about 75 percent of centers reported increasing their academic activities;
almost 80 percent of principals indicated doing so. Data from center coordinator and project
director surveys also showed reported increases in such activities. While our site visits cannot
provide data to verify this shift occurred, there clearly was a perception of a shift in focus toward
academic activities.
Among the reasons for this increased emphasis on academics were growing concerns about
student academic performance in general, and test scores in particular. Site visitors noted that
relatively few centers in the previous year (7 percent) had said that helping students on
assessment tests was an objective, but in the second year about 20 percent said so. Center
administrators, noting in interviews that centers were a way to improve the achievement of lowperforming
students, targeted academic services to these students or increased the academic
content of centers in other ways.
Making room for this shift meant reducing nonacademic activities. For example, one center
dropped some of its enrichment offerings to make room for literacy activities and tutoring
sessions in math. Another center eliminated most of its enrichment activities to focus on
providing extra academic help to students.
41
3. Centers Experienced Heavy Staff Turnover
Between the study?s first and second year, centers experienced changes in staff at all
levels.24 Staff members were the most likely to turn over; two-thirds were not working for the
centers in the study one year later. Almost
one-third of schools operating a 21st
Century center had a new principal, and
almost one-third of the centers had a new
coordinator. Project directors experienced
the lowest turnover, with less than a fifth of
grantees having a new project director.
The high staff turnover is similar to turnover found in a national study of after-school
programs (Seppanen et al. 1993) and higher than turnover found in child-care settings
(Whitebook et al. 1998). Some turnover resulted from grantee efforts to substitute school-district
staffers for staffers of outside organizations. Four grantees said they wanted to rely less on
outside organizations so they could more effectively monitor services; two grantees no longer
had the financial resources to purchase services from outside organizations; and one grantee
made a policy decision to rely more on teachers as staff members.25 Some turnover also may
have resulted from administrators? efforts to scale back staffing. For example, as grant funds
declined, administrators of one program reduced the amount of activities offered, which reduced
the program?s staffing needs. Both factors would contribute to the turnover numbers, but would
24The study estimated staff turnover by comparing the names of staff members who were listed for the
programs or schools in the two years. Grantees that no longer operated 21st Century programs as of fall 2001 were
not included in the estimates.
25Survey data confirm the hiring shift toward school district employees. The percentage of coordinators
employed directly by the 21st Century program rather than employed by community or nonprofit organizations rose
from 80 to 91 percent, and the percentage of other staff members employed by 21st Century programs rather than by
community or nonprofit organizations rose from 82 to 92 percent.
Staff Turnover at Middle School Centers
Percent Turnover In
Two Years
Principals 30.4
Project Directors 17.9
Center Coordinators 31.7
Line Staff 65.1
SOURCE: Questionnaires and Program Records. The
sample size in the 2000-2001 school year was 46
principals, 28 project directors, 41 center
coordinators, and 555 staff members.
42
not represent decisions by staff members to leave their center jobs. Even after accounting for
these factors, however, staff turnover was substantial.
In surveys, administrators rated staff turnover as a minor issue for their centers, but
indicated to site visitors that hiring new staff took more time than they had expected. Turnover
of more senior administrators had mixed effects on centers. For example, site visitors observed
that new principals at some host schools supported the program more, while new principals at
other host schools supported it less. A new principal at one school, for example, moved the
center?s office from a portable classroom far from the main school building into the building
itself. In another school, the new principal moved the center?s office from next to the principal?s
office into the basement. In a third school, the relationship between the school and the center
was unaffected when an assistant principal who shared similar views about the center became the
new principal.
Whether turnover can be reduced is unclear. On a survey, most staffers who said they did
not expect to return the following year cited personal commitments as the reason. During the
site visits, center staffers noted that teachers who worked for the program usually left because of
other commitments and because of burnout from teaching both during and after school.
B. Student Attendance Was Low in the Second Year
Two key attendance patterns for middle school students emerge in the second year. First,
many students did not return to programs after having attended in the previous year. Second,
among returning students who attended in the second year, attendance was low, comparable to
the low attendance levels observed in the first year.
About 59 percent of students who attended in the first year no longer had access to centers in
the second year, because they had gone on to high school or had transferred to other middle
43
schools that did not operate centers. Among the remaining 41 percent who had access to centers,
about half (47 percent) attended. The remaining 53 percent did not attend (Figure III.1 shows the
breakdown). For the total sample of students who had participated in centers in the first year,
average attendance in the second year was nine days (Table III.1).
Among students who participated in the second year, attendance levels were similar to those
in the first year. Average attendance in the second year was 30 days, compared with 33 days in
the first year (Table III.1). Eighty percent of students attended 50 days or less, and 59 percent
Figure III.1
Attendance in Second Year
Source: Program Attendance Records and Student Tracking Data.
Students Who Do Not Have Access to the Program
59%
Students Who Attended
47%
Students Who Did Not Attend
53%
Students Who Have Access to the Program
41%
Full Sample of Students
100%
44
Table III.1
21st Century Middle School Center Attendance, Year 2
All Treatment
Students
Participating
Treatment
Students
Percentage of Students Who Attended the Program
in the 2001-2002 School Year
29.5 100.0
Average Days Attended in 2001-2002
8.8 29.5
Number of Days Attended (Percentage of Students)
0 70.0 0.0
1 to 25 17.7 59.0
26 to 50 6.4 21.3
51 to 75 2.8 9.2
76 to 150 3.1 10.4
Attendance Ratea (Percentage of Students)
10 or less 80.7 35.2
11 to 25 6.9 23.2
26 to 50 6.3 21.3
51 to 70 2.4 8.1
71 to 85 2.1 7.0
86 to 100 1.5 5.2
SOURCE: Center Attendance Records. The sample size for all treatment students is 1,629. The
sample size for participating treatment students?students who attended the program at
least one day in the 2001-2002 school year?is 488.
aThe attendance rate is the number of days students attended as a proportion of the number of days
centers were open, which centers provided in their annual performance reports. Totals may not
add to 100 percent because of rounding.
45
attended for 25 days or less. Sixty percent attended less than one-quarter of the days that centers
were open (which averaged about 96 days). Students who participated in the second year were
younger (in 6th or 7th grade rather than in 8th), as would be expected since many older students
moved on to high school, but they were also more likely to be white, speak English at home, and
had mothers who were more highly educated.
The week-to-week pattern of attendance in the second year was similar to the pattern in the
first year (Figure III.2). The average number of days a week students attended fell throughout
the school year and declined sharply around major holidays. The figure shows that the average
attendance for the second year was well under the average attendance in the first year, because of
the large number of students not attending during the second year. Restricting the sample to only
students who attended (at least one day) shows that the attendance pattern in the second year was
similar to that in the first year, with the same average frequency and about the same seasonal
pattern (Figure III.3).
Additional analysis found large differences in average student attendance across grantees.
For example, one grantee had average student attendance of 17 days a year, whereas another had
average student attendance of 39 days a year. Variations in average attendance across grantees
explained much of the overall variation in student attendance.26
Few student characteristics were related to frequency of attendance at centers. We
investigated almost 30 characteristics and only a few were statistically significant. Students who
attended more frequently during the second year were younger, were more likely to be over-age
for their grade, had fewer school-day absences, and rated their school more highly.
26Models of student attendance explained 36 percent of its variation; 33 percent of the variation was explained
by grantee variables, and 3 percent was explained by student characteristics.
46
Source: Center Attendance Records.
Note: Figure includes all participating students except students who transferred during the year.
Source: Center Attendance Records.
Note: Only students who attended in the second year are included, except for students who transferred during the year.
Figure III.3
Average Days Attended Each Week, Second-Year Participants and First-Year Participants
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
October November December January February March April
Average Number of Days Attended
Year 2 Participants Year 1 Participants
Figure III.2
Average Days Attended Each Week, Second Year and First Year
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
October November December January February March April
Average Number of Days Attended
Year 2 Year 1
47
C. Middle School Center Outcome Differences
Table III.2 shows that the propensity score matching technique used to create the study?s
comparison group yielded groups that were similar along many dimensions. For example, the
two groups both had slightly more females than males and similar racial and ethnic composition.
Some characteristics of the groups differed. Treatment group students had lower average
grades, less-regular homework habits, and more discipline problems than comparison group
students.27 Regression models were used to adjust for these differences; Appendix Table C.4
presents results of tests of the effectiveness of the regression adjustments.28 The tests show that
the adjustments typically reduced differences to be statistically insignificant or close to
insignificant.
How differences that remain after regression adjustment might affect the estimates is
unclear. If students attending programs are more disadvantaged than comparison group students,
for example, and if centers generally have larger impacts on disadvantaged students, the
estimates here will overstate true effects of the programs. The study can only speculate on the
direction because it has not been established by previous research. The method also may
overestimate effects for some outcomes and underestimate effects for others. The study views
the measured outcome differences as indications of how centers affected various outcomes, but
recognizes that a more rigorous experimental design may have yielded findings that differ from
those reported here.
27A large number of variables are reported in Table III.2 and some differences will arise by chance. This
caution also applies to the impact estimates reported in this chapter; because a large number of statistical tests were
conducted, some findings may be significant by chance alone.
28Other tests of the results were run, including tests of the sensitivity of impact results to the use of
nonresponse weights. These tests are presented in Appendix C.
48
Table III.2
Characteristics of Center Participants and Comparison-Group Students:
Middle School Centers
Characteristic
Percentage of Program
Participants
Percentage of
Comparison-Group
Members p-valuea
Demographics
Gender
Male 47.3 46.5 0.62
Female 52.7 53.5 0.62
Race/Ethnicity
White (non-Hispanic) 38.2 40.6 0.33
Black (non-Hispanic) 27.7 24.7 0.33
Hispanic 12.3 12.0 0.33
Other 15.5 15.9 0.33
Mixed race 6.3 6.9 0.33
Grade Level
6 20.7 21.6 0.19
7 37.8 38.2 0.19
8 33.7 34.1 0.19
Other or ungraded 7.8 6.2 0.19
Primary language in the home is not English 17.8 18.9 0.39
Academic and Other Outcomes at Baseline
Student-Reported Baseline Grades
Mostly A?s 30.4 34.1 0.00***
Mostly B?s 35.8 36.5 0.00***
Mostly C?s 23.2 21.3 0.00***
Mostly D?s or below 8.8 7.5 0.00***
Not graded 1.8 0.7 0.00***
Average Grades 83.1 84.0 0.01***
Homework
Mother or father helps student with homework 63.1 63.2 0.93
Mean of homework habits indexb 2.80 2.85 0.02**
Mean of Index of Positive Behaviorc 3.0 3.0 0.52
Student-Based Discipline Problem Composited (Mean) 1.39 1.33 0.00***
Mean of Parental Discipline Indexe 2.9 2.9 0.46
Negative Behavior Compositef (Mean) 1.55 1.52 0.07
Mean of Index of Empathyg 3.1 3.1 0.94
Mean of Index of Controlling Destinyh 3.0 3.0 0.81
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use
Composite (Mean)i 1.12 1.11 0.10
Mean of Safety Indexj 3.33 3.37 0.03**
Sample Sizek 1,727 2,385
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
Table III.2 (continued)
49
a The p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program participants and
comparison group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and if
the p-value is less than .01, the difference is significant at the 1 percent level.
b The homework habits index is based on student responses to how often they: (1) did the homework the teachers assign, (2) do homework in the
same place each day, (3) do homework at the same time each day, and (4) write down homework assignments. The index is equal to the mean
of the four variables. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor homework habits, whereas a value of 4 indicates good homework habits.
c The positive behavior index is based on how often the student: (1) helps another kid in school, (2) helps her parents, and (3) goes to church,
temple, or mosque. A value of 1 on the index indicates never doing the aforementioned, while a value of 4 indicates doing them often.
d The student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class,
(2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem they
are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems,
while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
e The parental discipline index is based on student responses to how often parents: (1) check on whether homework is completed, (2) limit the
amount of time available to watch TV, (3) decide which TV shows their kids are allowed to watch, and (4) tell their children not to drink alcohol
or use drugs. A value of 1 on the composite indicates parents who engage in less discipline, while a value of 4 indicates parents who engage in
more discipline.
f The negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they: (1) break something on
purpose, (2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store, (6) give a teacher a hard time, (7)
sell illegal drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a
low level of negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of negative behavior.
g The empathy index is based on a student ratings of ability to: (1) work with others on a team or on a group project, (2) feel bad for other people
when they are having a hard time, and (3) believe the best about other people. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor ability, while a value of
4 indicates excellent ability.
h The controlling destiny index is based on a student ratings of ability to: (1) set goals and work to achieve them, (2) plan for things needed in the
future, (3) work out conflicts or disagreements with others, (4) stick to beliefs even if friends disagree. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor
ability, while a value of 4 indicates excellent ability.
i The tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students (1) smoke cigarettes, (2) use smokeless
tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5) smoke marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and (7)
use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates no substance abuse, while a value of
4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
j The safety index is based on how often the student feels safe: (1) walking in her neighborhood, (2) being at home alone, (3) on the ground
outside school, (4) going to the bathroom at school, and (5) in the hallways at school. A value of 1 indicates feeling less safe and a value of 4
indicates feeling more safe.
k Sample sizes may differ due to missing values.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
50
The study estimated two types of outcome differences. First, it estimated ?intent-to-treat?
differences by comparing average outcomes at the time of the second follow-up for the full
treatment and comparison groups. The intent-to-treat estimates provide a general sense of the
outcomes experienced by the treatment and comparison groups after two school years. These
estimates are useful because they are based on the treatment and comparison groups as they were
constructed at the start of the study.29 Looking at the full group of students (even students who
are no longer attending in the second year) provides an opportunity to observe outcome
differences in the second year that might occur due to attending the program in the first year and
possibly in the second year. All results presented in this chapter are based on intent-to-treat
estimators. Models were estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the complex sampling
design.
Because some students graduated to high school or transferred to other schools and did not
have access to a 21st Century center in the study?s second year, the study team also estimated
outcome differences for students who had access to centers during the second year.30 These
students could have attended centers had they wanted to, which is conceptually similar to
students who were the basis for the first-year report except for the additional year.31 The method
used to conduct this analysis does not rely on the original treatment and comparison groups
identified through propensity score matching. Instead, it relies on a sample that has been
29?Treatment? group refers to students who were participating in programs in fall 2000. Whether these
students received program services?a treatment?in the second year depended on whether they attended.
30For both types of estimates, when baseline outcomes were available, the study estimated outcome differences
by comparing the change in outcomes from baseline to second followup for the treatment and comparison groups
(the ?differences of differences? method).
31We investigated an ?instrumental-variables? approach for estimating outcome differences for participants,
which requires a variable that predicts participation in the program and that is not correlated with outcomes.
However, we were unable to identify a variable that met both conditions.
51
rebalanced to increase the comparability of the treatment group (students from the original
treatment group who had access to programs in the second year) and its comparison group. The
analysis and its results are described in Appendix C. The study faced a similar situation when
examining the relationship between attendance and outcomes. The analysis is based on
regression models?not on the comparison design used to estimate outcome differences?and
the results are presented in Appendix C.
The findings presented in Appendix C are generally consistent with the findings presented
below. Estimating outcome differences for students with program access and examining the
relationship between attendance and outcomes does not substantially alter the main findings for
middle school students.
1. Some Differences in Supervision, Location, and After-School Activities
Several differences in location and supervision were evident between treatment and
comparison students (Table III.3). Treatment students were more likely than comparison
students to spend at least three days each week at school or another place for activities (28
percent versus 23 percent, effect size of 0.10). Most activities after school did not differ between
the two groups (Table III.3), although treatment students were more likely than comparison
students to have participated in lessons and clubs (effect sizes of 0.08 and 0.10, respectively).
Treatment students were less likely than comparison students to be with siblings after school
(18 percent versus 21 percent, effect size of 0.09).32 Levels of self-care were similar among
treatment and comparison students. Multiple definitions of self-care were examined, but the
32The reduction in ?being with siblings? does not necessarily imply a reduction in being only with siblings,
because students also can be with parents and other adults when they are with siblings. About 66 percent of middle
school students who reported being with a sibling after school also reported being with a parent or other adult. We
examined sibling supervision using the hierarchical definition from the first report (explained in more detail in
chapter II) and found no differences.
52
Table III.3
Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision, and Activities After School,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome Center Participants
Comparison
Group Difference
Percentage of Students with the Following Individuals at Least Three Days
After School in a Typical Week:
Self-carea 19.0 19.8 -0.8
Parent 50.9 53.0 -2.1
Nonparent adult 33.9 28.6 5.3
Sibling 17.5 21.2 -3.7**
Mixed (Not in any one category for at least three days) 4.0 5.4 -1.4
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at Least
Three Days in a Typical Week:
Own home 69.2 71.5 -2.3
Someone else?s home 12.6 11.8 0.8
School or other place for activities 27.5 23.2 4.4**
Somewhere to ?hang out? 12.9 10.5 2.4
Mixed location (Not in one location for at least three days) 8.2 7.8 0.4
Employment of Mother (Parent-Reported):
Full-time 59.9 62.6 -2.7
Part-time 15.7 13.4 2.2
Looking for Work 8.7 9.1 -0.4
Not in the labor force 15.7 14.9 0.9
Mean Number of Days Stayed After School for Activities in Typical Week 1.0 0.8 0.2**
Percentage of Students Who Participated in Following Activities
After School:
Homework 84.6 86.7 -2.2
Tutoring 18.1 15.1 3.0
Non-homework reading, writing, or science activities 43.9 41.9 2.0
School activities (band, drama, etc.) 32.1 29.3 2.7
Lessons (Music, art, dance, etc.) 23.8 20.7 3.2**
Organized sports 41.5 40.1 1.5
Clubs (Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, etc.) 15.7 12.2 3.5**
Activities at church, temple, mosque 30.5 29.6 1.0
Watched TV or videos 89.1 87.7 1.5
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer 64.9 64.8 0.2
?Hung out? with friends 82.1 78.1 4.1***
Volunteered or did community service 17.8 15.4 2.4
Worked at a job 20.5 19.0 1.6
Did chores around the house 77.8 79.0 -1.3
Took care of a brother or sister 50.3 49.7 0.7
Mean Time Students Reported Watching Television in the Past Day (Hours) 2.0 2.0 0.02
Mean Time Students Reported Reading for Fun in the Past Day (Hours) 0.3 0.3 0.02
Sample Sizeb 1,605 2,203
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators of
students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due
to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the
comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for
the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed, and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
Table III.3 (continued)
53
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
54
definitions did not change the findings. Appendix C shows estimates for alternative definitions
of self-care.
2. Few Differences in Academic Outcomes
Most academic outcomes did not differ significantly between the treatment and comparison
groups, with a few exceptions. Treatment students had better school attendance than comparison
students, being absent 9 days on average versus 10 days for the comparison group (effect size of
0.09; see Table III.4). Subject grades differed for one subject, with treatment students having an
average social studies grade of 82 and comparison students averaging an 80 (effect size is 0.14).
There were no indications from site visits to suggest why social studies grades would differ
between the two groups. Grades in math, science, and English?and student and teacher reports
of achievement?did not differ (Table III.5).
According to teachers, student effort in class did not differ between treatment and
comparison groups. Treatment students were less likely than comparison students to report
paying attention to teachers in class (83 percent of treatment students reported paying attention
relative to 87 percent of comparison students, an effect size of 0.10). Measures of school
discipline problems showed no significant differences between treatment and comparison groups
(Table III.4).
Homework completion and time spent doing homework did not differ significantly between
the treatment and comparison groups (Table III.4). Table III.6 indicates potential reasons for the
lack of differences. First, treatment students were no more likely than comparison students to
receive help with homework (Table III.6). When parents and other adults are combined, about
80 percent of the treatment and comparison groups reported that they were asked ?often? or
?always? whether they had completed their homework. About 52 percent reported that their
55
Table III.4
Outcome Differences in Homework Completion and on Behavior and Level of Effort in the Classroom,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They ?Often? or
?Always? Complete the Homework Teachers Assign 81.3 83.0 -1.7
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That They
?Often? Complete Their Homework 49.8 50.5 -0.8
Mean Amount of Time Students Spent Doing Homework
the Last Time They Had Homework (Hours) 0.9 1.0 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported the Following:
?Agree? or ?strongly agree? that student completes
assignments to the teacher?s satisfaction 53.4 55.2 -1.8
Student ?usually tries hard? in English class 49.3 48.4 1.0
Student ?often? performs at or above ability level 41.5 43.8 -2.3
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Compositea (Mean) 3.5 3.5 0.0
Percentage of Students Who Reported that They Pay Attention
to their Teachers in School 83.4 87.1 -3.7**
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or ?Strongly
Agree? That Their Child Works Hard at School 78.5 76.0 2.5
Student-Based Discipline Problem Compositeb (Mean) 1.4 1.4 0.0
Teacher-Based Discipline Problem Compositec (Mean) 1.4 1.4 0.0
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended During 2001-2002
School Year 21.9 21.7 0.2
Mean Number of Days Student Was:
Absent 9.0 10.0 -1.0**
Late 6.2 5.4 0.8
Sample Sized 1,633 2,198
SOURCE: Student Survey, Teacher Survey, Parent Survey, School Records.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores,
attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown
in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical
sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences.
aThe level of effort composite is based on five items reported by teachers: whether the student (1) usually tried hard, (2) often
performs at or above his or her ability level, (3) is attentive in class, (4) participates in class, and (5) volunteers in class. The
composite is equal to the mean of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite
indicates a low level of effort, and a value of 5 indicates a high level of effort.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students reported (1) skipping school
or class, (2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to
Table III.4 (continued)
56
school about a problem they were having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the
composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
c
The teacher-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which the teacher reported that the student
was (1) skipping school or class, (2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having
his or her parents called to school about a problem they were having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables.
A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline
problems.
dSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
57
Table III.5
Outcome Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison-Group
Members Difference
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That
They Achieve at an ?Above-Average? or ?Very High? Level 31.3 33.8 -2.5
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? That They Get Good Grades on Tests 50.8 51.8 -1.0
Teacher-Reported Achievement Composite (Mean)a 3.3 3.3 0.0
Mean Grade:
Math 79.3 78.6 0.7
English 80.1 79.6 0.5
Science 79.6 79.0 0.6
Social studies/history 81.6 79.8 1.7***
Sample Sizeb 1,533 2,126
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores,
attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown
in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical
sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences.
a
The teacher-reported achievement composite is based on teacher responses to five questions: (1) At what level is this student
performing in reading? (2) Does this student get good grades on tests? (3) Does this student complete assignments to my
satisfaction? (4) Does this student have good communication skills? (5) Is this student a proficient reader? Values on these
items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite indicates low achievement, and a value of 5 indicates high achievement.
bSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
58
Table III.6
Outcome Differences in Types of Homework Assistance, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome Center Participants Comparison Group Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent ?Often? or
?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 76.1 76.1 0.0
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 42.5 45.1 -2.7
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 38.5 41.8 -3.3
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 45.3 49.4 -4.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported That an Adult Who Is Not Their
Parent ?Often? or ?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 38.8 35.3 3.5
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 29.1 28.4 0.8
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 29.4 25.8 3.6
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 35.3 33.7 1.6
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent or an Adult Who
Is Not Their Parent ?Often? or ?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 80.5 80.4 0.1
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 52.0 52.6 -0.6
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 49.2 49.1 0.1
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 56.6 58.5 -1.9
Percentage of Students Who Had the Following Individual Ask the Child
To Correct Parts of Homework:
Parent 75.0 76.3 -1.3
An adult who is not their parent 57.1 54.6 2.5
A parent or an adult who is not their parent 83.3 83.1 0.1
Sample Sizea 1,633 2,198
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators
of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades.
Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants
and the comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to
account for the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes
methods used to estimate outcome differences.
a
Sample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
59
homework was looked at to see if it was complete; about 49 percent reported that their
homework was checked to see if it was correct. With comparison students as likely as treatment
students to have their homework checked, and more likely to have a parent check their
homework, centers evidently had the effect of substituting other adults for parents in the role of
helping with homework. Relatedly, Table III.6 also shows that parents reported having a
relatively high level of involvement with their children?s homework, regardless of participation
in the program.
3. Higher Educational Aspirations for Treatment Students
Eighty-two percent of treatment students and 80 percent of comparison students said they
expected to graduate from college (effect size of 0.06, Table III.7).
4. No Differences in Social and Emotional Outcomes
Social, emotional, and other developmental outcomes did not differ between the groups
(Table III.7). For example, treatment students were no more likely than comparison students to
rate themselves highly on working out conflicts with others, to report feeling more socially
engaged, or to report better interactions with and empathy for others.
5. No Differences in Parent Outcomes
Parental involvement was about the same for both groups. For example, roughly 19 percent
of parents from both groups attended at least three open houses at the school during the past year,
and roughly 25 percent attended at least three parent-teacher organization meetings. In the first
report, all four parent-involvement measures were statistically significant; in this report, none of
the impacts was statistically significant.
60
Table III.7
Outcome Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations, and Parental Involvement,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome Center Participants
Comparison Group
Members Difference
Social Engagement Compositea (Mean) 3.54 3.56 -0.02
Peer Interaction/Empathy Compositeb (Mean) 3.01 3.03 -0.02
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or
?Excellent? at Working Out Conflicts with Others 57.4 60.7 -3.3
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or
?Excellent? on Using a Computer to Look Up Information 36.9 36.6 0.3
Percentage of Students Who Think They Will:
Graduate from college 82.1 79.6 2.5**
Graduate from high school but not college 16.5 18.5 -2.0
Attend high school but not graduate 1.4 1.9 -0.6
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following at Least
Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 19.5 18.8 0.7
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 26.8 25.4 1.4
Attended an after-school event 38.8 37.0 1.8
Volunteered to help out at school 16.1 14.2 1.9
Sample Sizec 1,601 2,208
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators
of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades.
Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants
and the comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to
account for the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes
methods used to estimate outcome differences. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
a
The social engagement composite is based on five items: the extent to which students report that they (1) have friends to ?hang out with,? (2) are
never lonely, (3) get along with others their age, (4) find it easy to make new friends, and (5) never feel left out of things. The composite is equal
to the mean of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of social
engagement, and a value of 4 indicates a high level of engagement.
bThe peer interaction/empathy composite is based on three items: students? rating of their ability to (1) work with others in a team or group,
(2) feel bad for other people who are having difficulties, and (3) believe the best about other people. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a
value of 1 on the composite indicates poor peer interactions, while a value of 4 indicates excellent peer interactions.
cSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
61
6. No Differences in Feelings of Safety
There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in their feelings of
safety during the after-school hours. About two-thirds of students reported that they felt very
safe after school (Table III.8).
7. Mixed Evidence on Negative Behaviors
There was mixed evidence on negative behavior outcomes. For example, more treatment
students than comparison students reported breaking things on purpose (10 percent compared to
8 percent, effect size of 0.08). Treatment students had higher values of a negative behavior
composite, which measured the frequency of eight behaviors including breaking things on
purpose, punching someone, selling drugs, and being detained or arrested by the police (effect
size of 0.08).33 On other outcomes?such as stealing, selling illegal drugs, and getting
arrested?there were no significant differences. Also, there were no significant differences
between the treatment and comparison groups on four measures of victimization, including being
threatened or hurt with a weapon and having property damaged.34
There was mixed evidence on drug use (Table III.8). Treatment students were more likely
than comparison students to report using cocaine, ecstasy, or LSD. The percentage of students
reporting this type of drug use was small?less than 1 percent of students?and the effect size of
0.08 was small as well. There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups
on the extent to which students smoked cigarettes, drank alcohol, or smoked marijuana.
33Other studies also have found evidence of increased negative behavior among program participants. For
example, Mahoney et al. (2001) found evidence of increased criminal offenses among Swedish students attending
youth recreation centers, and Weisman et al. (2002) found increased delinquent behavior among after-school
program participants.
34The study asked generally about whether students engaged in negative behaviors and not whether the
behaviors occurred in the after-school program or elsewhere.
62
Table III.8
Outcome Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels
of Safety After School Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very Safe 64.6 66.9 -2.4
Somewhat safe 32.7 30.6 2.1
Not at all safe 2.7 2.5 0.3
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following
?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Break something on purpose 10.4 8.0 2.4**
Punch or hit someone 22.4 19.7 2.7
Steal from a store 4.9 4.0 0.9
Sell illegal drugs 1.4 1.8 -0.3
Get arrested or detained by police 3.3 3.1 0.2
Negative Behavior Compositea (Mean) 1.56 1.53 0.03**
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Happened
to Them ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug 18.1 19.1 -1.0
Been ?picked on? after school 27.7 24.7 3.0
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 6.8 5.9 1.0
Been threatened by a gang or gang member 7.2 7.0 0.2
Had property damaged on purpose 13.5 11.1 2.4
Percentage of Students Who Report That They Did the Following
?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 4.7 4.1 0.6
Have at least one alcoholic drink 9.8 9.0 0.8
Smoke marijuana 4.8 4.3 0.5
Took illegal drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, or LSD 0.8 0.2 0.6***
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use Compositeb (Mean) 1.14 1.12 0.02
Sample Sizec 1,609 2,209
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores,
attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown
in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical
sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
aThe tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students report that they (1) smoke
cigarettes, (2) use smokeless tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5)
smoke marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and (7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on
the composite indicates no substance abuse, while a value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
bSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
63
Increases in negative behavior may seem counterintuitive for programs that provided
enrichment and recreational opportunities and whose goals typically included positive youth
development. However, some researchers have noted that grouping youth together, particularly
high-risk youth in unstructured settings, can increase negative behavior (Dishion et al. 1996;
Dishion et al. 1999; Sherman et al. 1998). In addition, site visitors observed aspects of center
operations that may have contributed to negative behaviors or at least contributed to not reducing
them. Site visitors observed instances where students were disobeying staff members and
arguing with staff members or other students, bothering other students, or talking when they
were supposed to be doing homework or another activity, and instances where staffers were not
maintaining control of students.
D. Few Differences for Subgroups
Results also were estimated for six subgroups based on student or parent characteristics: (1)
grade level, (2) ?high? versus ?low? baseline grades, (3) ?high? versus ?low? baseline discipline
problems, (4) race/ethnicity, (5) gender, and (6) a two-parent versus single-parent household
structure.35 Some of these characteristics might be used by programs to target program services,
whereas others may be helpful in understanding estimates. The full set of subgroup estimates is
presented in Appendix D; estimates for key outcomes and subgroups are presented here.36
35Students are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades at baseline of C, D, or F;
students are defined as having high baseline grades if they reported average grades at baseline of A or B. Students
are defined as having low (high) discipline problems if their discipline problem composite variable is below (above)
the median level of the discipline composite for the study sample.
Results for a subgroup defined by participation in the program in the spring prior to the start of the study were
estimated to investigate whether previous participation in an after-school program was associated with impacts.
Most of the impacts were insignificant, except that students who had attended the program in the previous spring
(before the study began) were more likely to say they expected to graduate from college.
36Subgroup estimates should be interpreted with caution; because many statistical tests were done for the
subgroup analysis, some findings will appear positive by chance alone.
64
The findings indicate few subgroup outcome differences (Tables III.9a through III.10b). An
initial look at the subgroup findings indicated that outcome differences for one subgroup?
students with high grades at baseline?were significantly different from the outcome differences
for students with lower baseline grades. However, the differences were not significant after
controlling for whether students were in other subgroups.37 This suggests that having high
grades may not be the factor that is giving rise to the outcome differences, but that factors related
to having high grades may be.
The first report noted that black students had significantly larger outcome differences on
some outcomes than white students?classroom effort, lateness to school, and math grades.
Black students did not experience a similar pattern of larger outcome differences than white
students in the second year.
E. Comparing Estimates
It will be helpful to recap the key findings for the two reports, focusing on the intent-to-treat
estimates, which are based on the full sample of treatment and comparison students, and on
several key outcomes: supervision after school, grades, absences, classroom effort, safety, and
negative behaviors and victimization.
The two reports provide evidence that treatment students were less likely than comparison
students to be with parents after school and more likely to be with other adults (Table III.11).
These effects were more pronounced in the first than the second year, most likely due to the
lower program participation observed in the study?s second year.
37To assess how impacts on other subgroups might affect the high baseline grade subgroup impacts listed in the
report, we first ran models that regressed outcomes on a variable that interacted treatment and high grades or low
grades. We then ran models that included other treatment-subgroup interaction terms. This procedure enabled us to
assess whether subgroup impacts were evident in the presence of additional treatment and subgroup interactions.
65
Table III.9A
Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School for White, Black, and Hispanic Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2
White (Non-Hispanic) Black (Non-Hispanic) Hispanic
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported Being
in the Following Locations After School
at Least 3 Days in Typical Week:
Own home 65.1 72.1 -6.9*** 75.5 74.9 0.6 68.5 67.3 1.3
Someone else?s home 10.9 11.4 -0.6 12.2 11.1 1.0 10.5 12.2 -1.7
School or other place for activities 30.8 30.4 0.4 29.1 24.0 5.0 27.9 22.4 5.5
Somewhere to ?hang out? 11.5 10.5 1.0 14.8 8.6 6.2*** 14.2 13.2 1.0
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 10.2 4.6 5.6*** 5.5 6.0 -0.5 7.3 9.4 -2.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported Being
with the Following Individuals After School
at Least 3 Days in Typical Week:
Self carea 17.5 14.6 3.0 17.3 18.0 -0.8 21.7 22.6 -0.9
Parent 50.5 57.0 -6.5** 47.3 52.5 -5.3 50.5 46.5 4.0
Non-parent adult 35.6 32.9 2.6 30.8 28.2 2.6 29.7 25.2 4.4
Sibling 18.8 22.8 -4.0 20.9 19.8 1.1 13.2 21.8 -8.6***
Mixed (no one category for at least 3 days) 4.9 4.7 0.2 5.1 6.9 -1.8 5.3 7.2 -1.9
Employment of Mother (parent-reported):
Full-time 60.7 66.1 -5.5 64.8 62.4 2.4 53.6 56.5 -2.9
Part-time 19.8 18.0 1.8 12.4 9.2 3.2 14.4 12.7 1.6
Looking for Work 4.9 3.3 1.6 10.3 11.6 -1.3 11.0 12.7 -1.7
Not in the labor force 14.6 12.5 2.1 12.5 16.8 -4.3 21.0 18.1 2.9
Mean Number of Days School Records Indicate
Student Was:
Absent 11.9 13.0 -1.1** 13.1 14.7 -1.6 11.4 12.1 -0.7
Late 5.8 5.3 0.5 7.6 5.8 1.8 8.0 7.4 0.6
Mean Class Grade:
Math 81.6 80.7 1.0 74.7 74.0 0.7 76.4 75.7 0.7
English 79.5 79.2 0.3 74.6 74.0 0.6 75.6 74.9 0.7
Science 79.8 79.5 0.3 74.2 73.5 0.7 74.7 74.0 0.6
Social Studies 80.0 78.6 1.5 75.6 72.4 3.2*** 74.5 73.9 0.7
Number of Observations
Student-reported outcomes 1,334 909 1,020
School records outcomes (attendance) 1,324 899 1,016
School records outcomes (grades) 1,300 863 971
Parent-reported outcomes 1,216 770 933
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey, School Records.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated outcome difference for the other related
subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
a
Students are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
66
Table III.9B
Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities After School
for Low and High Baseline Grade Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Low Baseline Gradesa High Baseline Gradesa
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Being in Following Locations After School
at Least 3 Days in Typical Week:
Own home 68.4 71.3 -3.0 69.5 71.5 -2.0
Someone else?s home 12.5 13.6 -1.1 11.0 9.3 1.7
School or other place for activities 27.4 20.7 6.6*** 29.8 27.0 2.7
Somewhere to ?hang out? 16.5 13.0 3.5 10.7 8.8 1.9
Mixed (no one location for at least
3 days)
6.5 6.3 0.2 8.2 7.5 0.6
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Being with the Following Individuals After
School at Least 3 Days in Typical Week:
Selfb 20.3 23.8 -3.5 18.3 17.1 1.2
Parent 48.6 46.1 2.5 50.6 54.4 -3.8
Non-parent adult 31.1 25.9 5.3 34.6 29.9 4.7
Sibling 16.8 18.5 -1.7 17.4 23.1 -5.8***
Mixed (no one category for at least
3 days)
5.2 6.3 -1.1 4.1 5.9 -1.8
Employment of Mother (parent-reported):
Full-time 59.4 63.8 -4.4 59.7 62.6 -2.9
Part-time 17.1 11.0 6.1** 15.1 14.2 0.9
Looking for Work 9.9 9.3 0.6 8.3 8.8 -0.5
Not in the labor force 13.6 15.9 -2.3 16.9 14.3 2.6
Mean Number of Days School Records
Indicate Student Was:
Absent 14.0 14.9 -0.93 11.2 12.2 -1.04**
Late 9.2 7.2 2.06** 6.0 5.8 0.21
Mean Class Grade:
Math 71.6 70.7 0.94 79.6 79.2 0.46
English 71.4 69.8 1.56** 78.2 78.3 -0.13
Science 71.0 70.1 0.94 79.3 79.0 0.28
Social Studies 71.7 68.6 3.20*** 78.7 77.7 0.92
Number of Observations
Student-reported outcomes 1,130 2,593
School records outcomes (attendance) 1,117 2,587
School records outcomes (grades) 1,067 2,507
Parent-reported outcomes 994 2,328
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey, School Records.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design. Percentages may not sum to
100 because of rounding.
a
Students are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades of C, D, or F; students are defined as having high baseline
grades if they reported average grades of A or B.
bStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
67
Table III.10A
Outcome Differences in Other Student and Parent Outcomes for White, Black, and Hispanic Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2
White (Non-Hispanic) Black (Non-Hispanic) Hispanic
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling
the Following Levels of Safety After School
Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very Safe 71.9 77.2 -5.3** 60.5 58.7 1.8 59.5 61.5 -1.9
Somewhat safe 25.4 21.5 3.9 35.3 38.0 -2.7 38.1 35.4 2.7
Not at all safe 2.6 1.2 1.4** 4.1 3.3 0.8 2.4 3.1 -0.7
Students? Educational Expectations
(percentages):
Graduate from college 82.8 84.8 -2.0 82.9 81.6 1.3 76.1 72.6 3.5
Graduate from high school 15.9 14.3 1.6 16.0 16.6 -0.5 21.0 24.1 -3.0
Drop out of high school 1.3 0.9 0.4 1.1 1.9 -0.7 2.9 3.4 -0.5
Percentage of Students Who Reported
the Following Happened to Them ?Some?
or ?A lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug 17.7 16.4 1.3 13.6 16.5 -2.9 21.7 24.9 -3.2
Been picked on after school 32.0 28.6 3.4 27.2 21.8 5.4 23.0 21.1 1.8
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 7.1 5.7 1.3 6.5 5.4 1.2 7.0 6.2 0.8
Been threatened by a gang member 6.1 5.6 0.5 7.7 6.8 0.9 7.8 9.0 -1.1
Had your property damaged on purpose 12.0 12.1 -0.1 18.8 10.1 8.7*** 9.4 11.2 -1.8
Percentage of Students Who Reported That
They Do the Following ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 6.5 5.2 1.4 3.5 2.0 1.4 3.9 4.9 -1.0
Smoke marijuana 4.3 4.0 0.3 4.4 2.9 1.5 5.5 5.7 -0.2
Drink alcohol 10.7 9.4 1.3 8.2 5.1 3.1 12.3 12.6 -0.2
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, Drug Use
Composite (mean)
1.1 1.1 0.0 1.1 1.1 0.0** 1.2 1.2 0.0
Number of Observations
Student-reported outcomes 1,341 910 1,019
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated outcome difference for the other related
subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
68
Table III.10B
Outcome Differences in Other Student and Parent Outcomes for Low and High Baseline Grades Subgroups, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Low Baseline Gradesa High Baseline Gradesa
Outcome
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Treatment
Mean
Comparison
Mean Difference
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Feeling the Following Levels of Safety After
School Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe 62.2 63.6 -1.4 64.4 68.5 -4.1
Somewhat safe 34.9 34.0 1.0 32.7 29.2 3.5
Not safe at all 2.9 2.5 0.4 2.8 2.2 0.6
Students? Educational Expectations
(Percentages):
Graduate from college 73.3 69.1 4.2 86.7 85.2 1.5
Graduate from high school 24.2 28.4 -4.2 12.0 13.1 -1.1
Drop out of high school 2.5 2.5 0.0 1.3 1.7 -0.4
Percentage of Students Who Reported
the Following Happened to Them ?Some?
or ?A lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal
drug
18.0 24.1 -6.2*** 18.1 17.0 1.1
Been picked on after school 30.6 25.7 4.9 26.1 24.1 2.0
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 10.5 7.6 2.9 5.3 4.9 0.3
Been threatened by a gang member 8.6 8.3 0.3 6.3 6.4 -0.1
Had your property damaged on purpose 16.0 13.5 2.4 11.8 10.1 1.6
Percentage of Students Who Reported That
They Do the Following ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 6.9 5.5 1.4** 3.7 3.5 0.2
Smoke marijuana 5.3 7.4 -2.0 4.7 3.0 1.7***
Drink alcohol 10.0 12.7 -2.6 10.0 7.5 2.5
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, and
Drug Use Composite (mean) 1.2 1.2 -0.02 1.1 1.1 0.03**
Number of Observations
Student-reported outcomes 1,133 2,600
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design. Percentages may not sum to
100 because of rounding.
a
Students are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades of C, D, or F; students are defined as having high baseline
grades if they reported average grades of A or B.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
69
Table III.11
Effect Sizes for Selected Outcomes From First Report and Current Report
Outcome
Year One Full Sample
Outcome Differences
Year Two Full Sample
Outcome Differences
In Self-Care After School 0.00 -0.02
With Parent After School -0.12*** -0.04
With Other Adult After School 0.24*** 0.11
With Sibling After School -0.11*** -0.09**
In Mixed Care After School 0.00 -0.06
Grade in Math 0.06 0.06
Grade in English 0.01 0.04
Grade in Science 0.01 0.05
Grade in Social Studies/History 0.03 0.14***
Number of School Absences -0.11*** -0.09**
Teacher-Reported Effort in Class 0.10*** 0.01
Feel Very Safe After School -0.03 -0.05
Feel Somewhat Safe After School 0.03 0.04
Feel Unsafe After School 0.00 0.02
Negative Behavior Composite 0.09*** 0.08**
Drug Use Composite 0.01 0.05
Been Picked on After School 0.04 0.07
Had Property Damaged 0.08** 0.07
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 level, two-tailed test.
There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in terms of selfcare
after school. Self-care was not significantly lower for the treatment group relative to the
comparison group in either the first or second year. In both years, however, sibling care was
lower among the treatment group relative to the comparison group.
The two reports provide consistent evidence that treatment students do not have higher
grades than comparison students in most subjects. Grades in English and science were similar
for the two groups. In the first report, math grades were higher (at the 10 percent significance
level); in the second report, social studies grades were higher.
70
The two reports provide evidence that treatment students had fewer absences and greater
classroom effort than comparison students. Both reports showed significantly fewer absences
and the first-year estimate showed greater classroom effort (the classroom effort results were
corroborated by additional estimates presented in Appendix C).
The two reports also provide consistent evidence that centers did not improve perceptions of
safety. Neither of the safety estimates was significantly different.
The evidence for the two years shows mixed findings on negative behaviors. In the first and
second reports, the negative-behavior composite variable was significant, as were some of the
individual negative behaviors that were part of the composite. On other behavior outcomes,
however, there were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups, suggesting
that the program had a mixed effect overall on negative behaviors.
Evidence from the two years is inconsistent in terms of the program?s effects on
victimization. There was evidence in the first report of higher levels of victimization among the
treatment group, although this was not found in the second report.
71
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Appendix A
Response Rates and Data Quality

77
This appendix describes the results of the baseline and first follow-up wave of data
collection conducted in the 12 elementary-school sites, and the second follow-up wave of data
collection for the middle-school sites in the 2001-2002 academic year. The baseline and first
follow-up experience for middle-school sites and for the first cohort of elementary-school sites
were presented in our first report. A future report (the third and final report of the evaluation)
will describe the second follow-up wave of data collection in the elementary-school sites.
The first follow-up for elementary-school sites was administered in spring 2001 for cohort 1
sites and in spring 2002 for cohort 2 sites. The second follow-up for middle-school sites was
administered in spring 2002. As part of the enhanced study supported by the grant from the C. S.
Mott Foundation, students participating in the 21st Century program at six middle-school sites
completed an additional module of questions on their after-school activities.
The study collected data from a variety of respondents at 46 sites (34 middle-school sites
and seven elementary-school sites in cohort 1 and five elementary-school sites in cohort 2). At
the elementary-school sites, we conducted baseline surveys with students and parents and
administered standardized reading tests to the students in fall 2000 for cohort 1 sites and fall
2001 for cohort 2 sites. At the middle-school sites, we conducted baseline surveys with students
in fall 2000.
At all sites, we administered surveys to students, parents, teachers, school principals, and
after-school program staff members (including directors). In each follow-up wave, we also
collected students? school records and program-attendance records, and for elementary-school
students we administered reading tests or collected past reading test scores (Table A.1).
78
Table A.1
Data Sources by Data-Collection Wave
Data-Collection Wave
Data Source Baseline 1st Follow-up 2nd Follow-up
Elementary-School Student Questionnaire
Elementary-School Student Test
Elementary-School Parent Questionnaire
Middle-School Student Questionnaire
Middle-School Parent Questionnaire
Teacher Questionnaire
Principal Questionnaire
School Recorda
After-School Program Attendance Record
After-School Program Project Director Questionnaire
After-School Program Center Coordinator Questionnaire
After-School Program Staff Member Questionnaire
aBaseline records data were collected at the time of the first follow-up records collection.
A. Data Collection Procedures for Elementary-School Sites
1. Baseline
Baseline data collection consisted of an elementary-school student survey, a reading test,
and a parent survey. The data were collected in the 2000-2001 school year for the first cohort of
elementary-school sites and in the 2001-2002 school year for the second cohort. Questionnaires
were given to all 3rd- to 6th-grade elementary-school students whose parents signed a consent
form for their children to participate in the study. Questionnaires were generally selfadministered
during the school day (in some instances, teachers read the questions aloud to their
class). We surveyed 90 percent of the 1,233 3rd- to 6th-grade elementary school students at
baseline (Table A.2). Response rates ranged from 81 to 100 percent (Table A.3). Students at
two sites were all in kindergarten through 2nd grade and were not surveyed.
79
Table A.2
Sample Sizes and Response Rates for the Baseline and First Followup
Elementary-School Sites
Sample Size Response Rate
Total Treatment Control Total Treatment Control
Instrument N N % N % N % N % N %
Baseline
Student Surveya 1,233 688 56 545 44 1,110 90 625 91 485 89
Student Test 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 1,568 68 847 67 721 69
Parent Survey 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 2,126 92 1,161 92 965 92
First Follow-Up
Student Surveya 1,233 688 56 545 44 1,106 90 618 90 488 90
Student Test 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 1,902 82 1,044 83 858 82
Parent Survey 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 1,732 75 961 76 771 73
Teacher Surveyb 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 1,831 79 995 79 836 80
School Record 2,308 1,258 55 1,050 45 2,016 87 1,110 88 906 86
aSample includes only grades 3 to 6.
bSample size and response rates are based on number of students; 88 percent of the 759 teachers in the sample
completed surveys.
Table A.3
Distribution of Response Rates For Elementary-School Sites
Number of Sites
Percentage
Instrument Total 90 to 100 80 to 89 70 to 79 60 to 69 50 to 59 Less than 50
Baseline
Student Surveya 10 5 5 0 0 0 0
Student Test 12 2 1 2 1 3 3
Parent Survey 12 6 5 1 0 0 0
Follow-Up
Student Surveya 10 4 2 4 0 0 0
Student Test 12 4 3 3 1 1 0
Parent Survey 12 0 2 4 5 1 0
Teacher Surveyb 12 2 2 4 2 1 1
School Record 12 7 3 1 1 0 0
aSurveys were administered only to 3rd- to 6th-grade students; one elementary-school site in each cohort had no
sample in those grades at baseline and follow-up 1.
bResponse rates are based on number of students, not teachers.
We obtained reading test scores for the Stanford Achievement Test 9 (SAT-9) for elementary
school students in one of two ways: (1) We collected scores from sites that administered tests, or
(2) field staff members administered the test at sites that did not use the test on their own. Field
staff members administered the tests to most students during the school day, and did make-ups
80
with a few students in their homes. We obtained test scores for 68 percent of students at baseline
(Table A.2). Most of the students who were not tested had transferred outside their district.
Some students did not answer enough test questions for their test to be scored and some were not
tested because of language barriers. Response rates across sites ranged from 43 to 98 percent,
excluding one site that provided SAT-9 test scores for students in grades 2 to 5 but did not allow
kindergartners and 1st graders to be tested.
We also asked elementary school parents to complete a baseline questionnaire, which 92
percent did (Table A.2). Response rates across sites ranged from 78 to 100 percent (Table A.3).
Slightly more than two-thirds (69 percent) returned questionnaires by mail, and the rest (32
percent) completed them by telephone.
2. First Follow-up
a. Student Survey and Test Data
About six weeks before the end of the school year, field staff members administered followup
questionnaires. Ninety percent of students in grades 3 to 6 completed the follow-up
questionnaire (Table A.2). Response rates across sites ranged from 72 to 97 percent (Table A.3).
About 9 of every 10 students who completed the questionnaire did so in school. The others
(mostly students who had transferred to other schools) completed the questionnaire by telephone
or mail.
We administered the reading component of the SAT-9 in school to students in kindergarten
through 6th grade who had not taken a district-administered version of the SAT-9 that spring.
We obtained test scores for 82 percent of students (Table A.2). Response rates by site ranged
from 57 to 93 percent (Table A.3). Most of the students who were not tested had transferred
outside their district, and a small percentage of students failed to answer enough questions for
scoring or were not tested because of language barriers or impairment.
81
b. Data Collected from Parents, Teachers, and Records
Three-fourths of elementary-school parents completed the follow-up questionnaire (Table
A.2). Slightly more than half (51 percent) responded to a mail survey and we interviewed the
rest by telephone (49 percent). Response rates, by site, ranged from 51 to 89 percent (Table
A.3).
About 88 percent of teachers completed questionnaires that provided data on 79 percent of
students (Table A.2). Most teachers responded by mail (69 percent) or telephone (31 percent).
Response rates across sites ranged from 46 to 100 percent (Table A.3).
We obtained school records for 87 percent of students (Table A.2). We collected more than
80 percent of records at all but two sites, with response rates ranging from 61 percent to 100
percent (Table A.3). Generally, students for whom we were unable to collect records had
transferred to other schools outside the district.
B. Data Collection for Middle-School Sites for the Second Follow-Up Wave
1. Student Survey
About six weeks before the end of the 2001-2002 school year, field staff members
administered the second follow-up questionnaire. Ninety percent of the 4,264 students in the
study completed the questionnaire (Table A.4) and response rates were greater than 80 percent at
all but one site (Table A.5).38 Nearly all students completed the survey in school (84 percent).
38At two of the 34 middle-school sites, the 2000-2001 baseline administration of student surveys was delayed
because of the time needed to reach agreement about participating in the study and for obtaining parental consent.
When reporting the data collected on individual students (from students, parents, teachers, and school records), we
excluded those two sites from the baseline and follow-up analyses; when reporting data collected from center staff
members, we included those two sites.
82
Table A.4
Sample Sizes and Response Rates for Second Followup
Middle-School Sites
Sample Size Response Rate
Total Treatment Comparison Total Treatment Comparison
Instrument N N % N % N % N % N %
Student Survey 4,264 1,782 42 2,482 58 3,856 90 1,620 91 2,236 90
Parent Survey 4,264 1,782 42 2,482 58
3,480 82
1,444 81
2,036 82
Teacher Surveya 4,264 1,782 42 2,482 58 3,686 86 1,540 86 2,146 86
School Record 4,264 1,782 42 2,482 58 3,905 92 1,641 92 2,264 91
aSample size and response rates are based on number of students, not teachers; 89.1 percent of the 1,188 teachers in
the sample completed surveys.
The others (16 percent), primarily transfer students, completed the questionnaire with computerassisted
telephone interviewers.
2. Data Collected from Parents, Teachers, and Records
Beginning in late spring of 2000-2001, we collected follow-up data from parents, English
teachers, and school records, using the same instruments as in the first followup. Eighty-two
percent of parents completed the follow-up questionnaire (Table A.4). A little more than half
(54 percent) responded to a mail survey and we interviewed the rest by telephone (46 percent).
Response rates by site ranged from 70 to 93 percent (Table A.5). Eighty-nine percent of teachers
completed questionnaires, which provided data on 86 percent of students (Table A.4). Most
teachers responded by mail (71 percent), with the remainder completing the questionnaire by
telephone (29 percent). Response rates across sites ranged from 10 to 100 percent (Table A.5).
We obtained school records for 92 percent of students (Table A.4). With the exception of
one site (which lost its 21st Century grant and did not cooperate with the study from that point
forward), response rates ranged from 79 percent to 100 percent (Table A.5). Generally, students
for whom we were unable to collect school records had transferred to other schools.
83
Table A.5
Distribution of Response Rates, By Site, for Middle-School Second Followup
Number of Sites
Percentage
Instrument Total 90 to 100 80 to 89 70 to 79 60 to 69 50 to 59 Less than 50
Student Survey 32 19 12 1 0 0 0
Parent Survey 32 3 18 11 0 0 0
Teacher Survey 32 16 12 2 0 0 2
School Record 32 23 7 1 0 0 1
C. Data Collected From Center and School Staff Members
As we did for the 2000-2001 academic year, we collected data on schools and centers from
principals and program staff members for the 2001-2002 school year. Ninety-six percent of
principals, 98 percent of project directors, and 92 percent of project staff members completed a
questionnaire (Table A.6). Most responded by mail.
We collected program attendance records from all centers that had active 21st Century
programs (Table A.6). The centers provided copies of their records in whatever form they
typically maintained attendance, such as by day or by activities offered each day. In a few cases,
centers provided the total number of days students attended, rather than the daily attendance
records. In principle, the elementary-school study design precluded attendance by students in the
control group. However, records showed that 9 percent of control-group students attended the
84
Table A.6
Sample Sizes and Response Rates: Data Collected from School and
After-School Center Staff Members In 2001-2002
Response Rate
Instrument Sample Size N %
Principal Surveya 82 79 96
Project Director Surveya 44 43 98
Center Coordinator Surveya,b 90 78 87
Staff Surveya,c 323 296 92
Program Attendance Recordd 74 74 100
aIncludes 44 sites (the 21st Century program at two middle-school sites had closed in the 2001-2002 year; those sites
were not included).
bTen after-school programs had two center coordinators; both coordinators returned surveys at nine after-school
programs.
cWe drew a random sample of staff members from all after-school programs.
dIncludes attendance collected from all programs that had a 21st Century after-school program during the 2001-2002
academic year, from three sites that were funding their after-school program with non-21st Century sources, and
from two sites that previously did not have a 21st Century program. Two sites had no 21st Century program that
year; two sites had a program in the fall semester only; and another site had a program in the spring semester only.
At least partial attendance was obtained from each site, and complete attendance was obtained from 91 percent of
the sites.
program for at least one day. Of the control-group students who attended the program, average
attendance was 43 days. For the control group as a whole, average attendance was four days.39
The middle-school study design did not restrict comparison-group students from attending
the program. Eleven percent of comparison-group students attended the program at least once.
Most attended from one to 25 days (71 percent) and average attendance was 20 days. For the
comparison group as a whole, average attendance was two days.
39Reasons control-group members attended the program were related mostly to program-staff changes and
miscommunication. New staff members were not always aware that some students had been assigned not to attend
the program.
85
D. Procedures for Constructing Nonresponse Weights
Preliminary analyses of missing data found evidence of systematic patterns that were related
to treatment status. For example, in the elementary-school study, treatment-group students who
were Hispanic were more likely to lack data for some outcomes. Nonresponse weights were
used to adjust for the missing data.
Nonresponse weights were calculated by identifying how nonrespondents differed from
respondents in terms of baseline characteristics. Respondents who were most similar to
nonrespondents were given a greater weight, which enabled them to ?represent? nonrespondents.
Nonresponse weights were constructed using a propensity-score approach. The probability
of responding to the follow-up survey was modeled as a logistic function of student baseline
characteristics similar to those used as control variables in estimating impacts. For each
respondent, the predicted probability of response was calculated using the estimated model.
Respondents who were most similar to nonrespondents generally were those with the lowest
predicted probabilities of response. The nonresponse weight is the inverse of this predicted
probability. For example, a respondent that had a predicted probability of responding to the
follow-up survey of 0.25 was given a nonresponse weight of 4, whereas a respondent with a
predicted probability of 0.90 was given a nonresponse weight of 1.1. Weights were then
normalized so they summed to the original sample size.
86
The exact procedure used to estimate nonresponse weights followed three steps:
1. Estimate a logistic regression in which the dependent variable is a binary indicator of
survey response and the independent variables are site indicators and baseline
characteristics of students, and drop insignificant baseline characteristics (those with
a p-value greater than 0.3). Retain site indicators regardless of significance. Use a
stepwise procedure to identify significant interactions that might improve the model?s
explanatory power.
2. If any weights from the model in the first step are large (greater than 3), investigate
trimming. (On inspection, none of the weights required trimming.)
3. Multiply the initial sample weight by the nonresponse weight and normalize the
resulting weight so that it matches the sum of the original sampling weight. Use this
final weight in impact regressions.
We used this procedure to construct nonresponse weights for the parent, teacher, student,
and records surveys for both elementary and middle school, and for elementary-school reading
tests, resulting in nine sets of weights. The goodness-of-fit of the propensity score models was
high, with the models able to correctly predict 71 to 87 percent of responses (depending on the
data source).
Appendix B
Study Design and Methods for Estimating Impacts

89
The impacts and outcome differences reported in the text are based on two study designs,
one for elementary school students that used random assignment, the other for middle-school
students that used matched-comparison groups. The first report described the two designs and
presented evidence about how well the designs created treatment groups and control or
comparison groups that were similar at baseline. Below, we briefly sketch aspects of the designs
and methods used to estimate program impacts and outcome differences. We also describe the
method used to estimate ?attendance? impacts.
A. Study Designs
The design for measuring impacts at the elementary school sites was based on random
assignment of students to treatment or control groups. Students and their parents applied to the
program by completing a brief information form and consent form. Their applications were sent
to Mathematica Policy Research, Inc. (MPR) and, after checking the information for
completeness, MPR researchers conducted random assignment and sent the results to the staff
members. For seven sites, random assignment took place at the beginning of the 2000-2001
school year; for the remaining five sites, random assignment took place at the beginning of the
2001-2002 school year.
The design for measuring outcome differences at the middle school sites was based on a
matched-comparison group design. Thirty-five sites first were selected randomly to represent
sites serving middle school students. One site declined to participate and two sites did not carry
out timely baseline data collection, which left 32 sites as the basis for the estimates. Site weights
were adjusted to maintain the representative nature of the sampling design.
At each site, nonparticipating students were matched to participating students using
propensity-score matching techniques. Matching was based on 38 characteristics derived from
90
the student baseline questionnaire. Generally, matching resulted in similar groups on the 38
characteristics used to match students, but some characteristics differed after matching. All
characteristics were included in regression models to adjust for remaining differences and to
improve the precision of the estimates.
1. Methods for Estimating Impacts for the Elementary School Study
For elementary schools, the impact estimation approach used regression models that
included outcomes at the first follow-up as dependent variables and variables created by
interacting treatment status with the 12 site indicators and student baseline characteristics as
independent variables. The models yielded 12 impact estimates, one for each site, and the
overall impacts were then calculated as the simple mean of the 12 site-specific impacts. The
variance of the estimator was derived from the variance-covariance matrix of the 12 site impact
estimates.
A two-stage procedure was used to estimate impacts on elementary-school participants. In
the first stage, an indicator for whether students participated in the program was regressed on
treatment status and baseline characteristics. In the second stage, outcomes at the first follow-up
were regressed on predicted participation from the first-stage and the baseline characteristics.40
2. Methods for Estimating Outcome Differences for the Middle School Study
For middle schools, the estimation approach used regression models with outcomes at the
second follow-up as dependent variables and treatment status and baseline characteristics as
independent variables. Because sites were sampled with unequal probabilities and had
40It is common in program evaluation for some treatment-group members not to participate in the program after
random assignment occurs. A simple estimator of program impact on participants is to divide the overall impact
estimate by the participation rate. The two-stage adjustment used in this study is the regression analog of that
technique, which also adjusts for control-group students who cross over into the program.
91
associated sampling weights, the regression models were estimated using SUDAAN? so that
variances of the estimates included design effects from sampling.41
We tested the use of a two-stage procedure to estimate outcome differences for participating
students. In the first stage, regression models were estimated with second-year participation
status as the dependent variable, and treatment status and baseline characteristics as independent
variables.42 In the second stage, regression models were estimated with outcomes from the
second follow-up as dependent variables, and the predicted level of participation from the first
stage and the baseline characteristics as independent variables. We experimented with using
access to centers as a variable in the first stage. Access to centers (whether students attended a
school that operated a center) was correlated with whether students participated. However,
access in the second year proved to be negatively correlated with a range of academic outcomes
at baseline, which did not satisfy a condition for being an instrumental variable for the
participation model. Using treatment status as an instrumental variable required assuming that
all outcome differences observed in the second year were experienced only by students who
participated in the second year, which is untenable.
B. Measuring the Impacts of Attendance
Policymakers often want to know whether greater participation in a program is related to
larger effects.43 This is especially important for after-school programs because attendance is
voluntary and frequency of attendance is highly variable.
41The stratified sampling design selected about the same number of sites from strata that included different
numbers of grantees, which resulted in unequal selection probabilities.
42Nonparticipation in the first year is not possible because first-year treatment status and participation are
synonymous for middle school students. To be selected for the study?s treatment group, students had to participate.
43The relationship between attendance and outcomes sometimes is referred to as a ?dosage? effect. However,
because other aspects of program services and activities also can be viewed as related to dosage, such as how often
92
Since students and parents choose how often to attend, attendance decisions may be related
to a host of factors not observed by the study, and estimates of the impact of more attendance
that do not address the unobserved factors could be misleading. For example, the motivation to
succeed in school is difficult to observe, and it may well increase program attendance and
academic outcomes at the same time. Comparing academic outcomes for students with high and
low attendance could reveal that students with high attendance had better academic outcomes;
but the difference could be due more to motivation than to program attendance.
To explore this issue and understand how various methods of estimating impacts may be
biased by unobserved factors, we ran a set of simulations to compare how various estimation
methods are affected by unobserved factors. The simulations show that common approaches for
estimating attendance impacts can be highly misleading. Results indicated that one method,
?fixed effects,? yielded estimates that are least affected by bias, and we used this approach to
estimate attendance effects.
The method does not eliminate the possibility that attendance impacts are mismeasured. If a
circumstance arises that increases (or decreases) attendance and outcomes between the first and
second year, and the circumstance is not related to program services and activities, the fixedeffect
method nonetheless will attribute the outcome difference to program attendance.
Compelling examples of these circumstances are not obvious, but they can be constructed. For
example, suppose in the second year, an after-school program experienced many illness-related
absences because of flu or some other contagion, while at the same time the absences reduced
outcomes because students missed regular school. In this case, the fixed-effect approach will
(continued)
students participate in academic activities during the after-school program or the intensity of the academic activities,
we focus the discussion here on attendance.
93
estimate a positive impact from program attendance, even if the program did not improve
outcomes, because outcomes declined when program attendance declined. Note that if illness
equally affected students in the program and students not in the program, the fixed-effect method
would not yield a biased estimate, because the treatment and control or comparison groups
would experience similar declines in outcomes from the first to the second year. The
circumstance needs to affect only one group to create the potential for bias.
1. Implementing the Fixed-Effect Approach
Two aspects of the fixed-effect approach needed additional consideration for use in
estimating attendance impacts. First, we wanted the models to allow for attendance to have
different impacts at different attendance levels. For example, attending the program more often
(say, 10 or 20 additional days) is likely to have different impacts on outcomes for a student who
attended 30 days, compared to a student who attended 100 days. The models we estimated
allowed for the nonlinear relationship by including a squared attendance variable (see Equation 1
below).
(1) 2
, 0 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ,
y
it it it it iti i it y X d d Xu u ??????e = + + + + + +
In Equation 1, there are two time periods, 1,2 t = . Time period 1 corresponds to the first
follow-up, and time period 2 to the second follow-up. Variable d is a measure of program
attendance, y is an outcome, observable characteristics used as regressors are represented by X.
Finally, each student?s ?fixed effect? is designated by u , and the error term is represented by e.
For continuous outcomes, the marginal impact of attendance from Equation 1 is simply
2 3
? ? 2 d ??+ , where 2
??and 3
??are estimates of 2 ?and 3 ?.
94
The variance of the marginal impact is a function of the estimated parameters and depends
on the assumed attendance level.
Figure B.1 shows how the marginal impact for attendance varies with attendance, while also
using the variance formula to create confidence intervals. The outcome is a composite measure
of student achievement that was based on a set of items reported by teachers (the findings from
Chapter III are used in the figure). The figure shows that the impact of additional attendance is
larger at low levels of attendance and diminishes as attendance increases. The confidence
interval also shows that the variance of the marginal impact increases as attendance moves away
from average attendance.
( ) ( ) ( ) 2
2 3 23 4 4 ? ? ?? Var d Var d Cov , ??? = + + ? Varianceof Marginal Impact
-0.015
-0.01
-0.005
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Figure B.1
Effect of 10 More Days Attended on Achievement Composite
(With 95 Percent Confidence Intervals)
Days
Attended
Marginal Effect
Upper Bound
Lower Bound
95
The second technical consideration is that we estimate a fixed-effect model for binary
outcomes using logistic regression, rather than ordinary least squares, using the approach
developed by Chamberlain (1980). A known feature of the fixed-effect logit model is that it uses
only cases for which the binary dependent variable changes value between time periods (for a
two-period model, the variable goes from zero to one or one to zero). The model requires coding
students as a ?1? if the dependent variable goes from 0 to 1, or as a ?0? if the variable goes from
1 to 0. For example, a student who indicated that he or she always did homework in both time
periods provides no information for the model and is not used in the estimation. However, if the
student indicated that he or she did not always do homework in the first time period but always
did homework in the second time period, the student receives a value of ?1? for the dependent
variable and is used in the estimation. The estimates for the model, therefore, are based on a
sample size that varies by outcome.
For the estimates reported in the text, the sample of more than 4,000 students at baseline
typically included 500 to 800 students who changed status over the 2 years and thus were
included in the fixed-effect logit estimation. If we assume that the attendance impact is the same
for all students, the dropping of cases will not bias impact estimates. However, if we assume
some students have larger attendance impacts than others (some students respond more than
others to attending the program), the fixed-effect logit estimator will estimate the attendance
impact for students who have the larger values, which may overstate the attendance impact. In
contrast, ordinary least squares models include all students but treat the binary outcome as if it
were continuous, thereby introducing other possible specification errors. In Appendix C, we
investigate this specification issue by comparing estimates from both approaches.
We calculated the variance of the marginal effect of attendance in the fixed-effect logit
using a bootstrapping approach. We first calculated the predicted probability of the outcome at
96
the lower attendance level and the predicted probability of the outcome at the higher attendance
level, and computed the difference between the two predicted probabilities. The difference is an
estimate of the marginal impact of the difference in attendance. We then conducted 500
replications of the procedure (500 bootstrap replications) and estimated the variance of the
marginal impact as the variance of the impact in the 500 replications.
Appendix C
Sensitivity Tests and Results for
Alternative Specifications

99
This appendix presents results for alternative specifications and sensitivity tests that were
conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. For both the elementary and middle school
designs, we assessed the effects of using nonresponse weights and regression adjustment
methods, the possibility that findings could be attributed to outlier sites, and the effects of using
alternative definitions of self-care.
For the middle school design, we analyzed the same issues and took three additional steps:
(1) analyzed the efficacy of using regression-adjustment models to reduce baseline differences in
the treatment and comparison groups, (2) estimated outcome differences for students who had
access to the program in the second year, and (3) analyzed the relationship between center
attendance and outcomes. Step 3 included comparing attendance-outcome findings estimated via
fixed-effects logit models with those estimated via ordinary least squares (OLS) models. This
appendix presents the findings separately for the two designs.
A. Elementary Schools
As described in Appendix A, nonresponse weights were used because exploratory analyses
found that missing data were correlated with treatment status and student characteristics. Using
nonresponse weights improves the representativeness of the estimated impacts for the full
sample.
Regression adjustment was used to increase the efficiency of the impact estimates. With
random assignment, the variables used in the regression models are not correlated with treatment
status by construction, but we expect greater precision in the regression-adjusted estimates.
1. Sensitivity of Estimates to Weights and Regression-Adjustment
We compared four sets of impacts: (1) those that use nonresponse weights and regression
adjustment, (2) those that use the weights but not regression adjustment, (3) those that do not use
100
the weights but use regression adjustment, and (4) those that do not use the weights or regression
adjustment. (The first set is used in the main text; the other three are included in appendix tables
and figures.) Table C.1 presents the results. Comparing the first two columns provides a sense
of how regression adjustment may have modified the impacts. The estimates are similar in the
two columns and two of the 24 outcomes had a higher level of significance when regression
adjustment was used. (Standard errors also were smaller with regression adjustment, although the
reduction usually was not large enough to change the level of significance from .05 to .01.)
Comparing the first and third columns provides a sense of how nonresponse weighting may
have modified the impacts. The last column presents impacts estimated as simple treatmentcontrol
differences. The point estimates are similar to the estimates in the first column. Three
impacts that were significant in the first column were not significant in the fourth, which may
reflect the lower precision of the simple estimator. Overall, the results appear to be robust to
weights and regression adjustment.
2. Consistency of Impacts Across Sites
A measured impact could be attributable to an outlier site or set of sites, which would reduce
confidence in the generalizability of the findings. For example, a positive impact that, on closer
inspection, resulted from a large impact in one of 12 sites and no impact in 11 sites, might
suggest an unusual experience in the one site.
To investigate this issue, we first compared the impact findings with the number of sites that
had positive or negative impacts (regardless of statistical significance). We did the comparison
for all main impacts, but here we show one table to illustrate how we did the analysis. Table C.2
shows insignificant impacts and significant impacts. For one outcome, whether students report
101
Table C.1
Sensitivity of Impact Estimates to Alternative Specifications, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
With Nonresponse
Weights and
Regressors
With
Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
Percentage of Students Under the Following Types of
Supervision at Least Three Days After School in a Typical
Week, According to Parent Reports:
Self-carea 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1
Parent care -10.4*** -9.8*** -10.1*** -9.4***
Non-parent adult care 11.0*** 10.5*** 10.6*** 10.0***
Sibling care -5.5** -5.5** -5.1 -5.2
Mixed care (not in any one category for at least three days) 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After
School at Least Three Days in a Typical Week, According to
Parent Reports:
Own home -18.3*** -17.8*** -17.9*** -17.4***
Someone else?s home -2.4 -2.7 -3.2 -3.5
School or other place for activities 21.8*** 21.3*** 21.2*** 20.6***
Somewhere to ?hang out? -0.3 -0.3 -0.5 -0.5
Mixed location (not in one location for at least three days) 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They ?Often? or
?Always? Complete the Homework Teachers Assignb 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.8
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That They
Often Complete the Homework Teachers Assign -5.8** -5.5 -4.8 -4.0
Mean Grade:
Math 0.3 -0.1 0.2 -0.1
English/language arts 0.1 -0.2 0.0 -0.3
Science 0.2 -0.2 0.3 -0.2
Social studies/history 0.4 -0.1 0.3 -0.2
Mean Reading Test Score -0.9 -0.5 0.0 0.2
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following
Levels
of Safety After School up Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe 1.5 0.3 0.0 -0.7
Somewhat safe 1.4 2.3 2.6 3.0
Not at all safe -3.0** -2.7** -2.6 -2.3
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following at
Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 0.0 -1.9 0.4 -1.4
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 2.6 0.4 3.9 1.9
Attended an after-school event 9.2*** 7.9** 9.6*** 8.4***
Volunteered to help out at school -4.1 -6.1** -3.8 -5.7
Sample Sizec 1,719 1,719 1,719 1,719
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
a Students are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
b The original set of seven sites was not asked these questions in the first year of the study.
c Sample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
102
Table C.2
Number of Sites With Positive or Negative Impacts on Other Outcomes,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
Estimated
Impact
Number of
Positive Site
Impacts
Number of
Negative Site
Impacts
Joint
Significance
of Site Impacts
(p-Value)a
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels
of Safety After School up Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe 1.5 5 4 0.19
Somewhat safe 1.4 5 4 0.46
Not at all safe -3.0** 3 6 0.38
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Are ?Somewhat
True? or ?Very True?:
They get along with others their age -5.1 3 6 0.00***
They feel left out of things 0.1 5 4 0.44
Percentage of Students Who Reported Doing the Following ?Some?
or ?A Lot?:
Help another student in school -4.2 4 5 0.07
Help another student after school 8.0** 8 1 0.96
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or
?Excellent? on the Following:
Working with others on a team or group -2.8 5 4 0.02**
Feeling bad for other people who are having difficulties -3.9 4 5 0.50
Believing the best about other people -0.1 3 6 0.91
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Excellent?
on the Following:
Using a computer to look up information 1.6 6 3 0.63
Setting a goal and working to achieve it -2.0 5 4 0.06
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Excellent? on
Sticking to What They Believe In, Even if Their Friends Don?t Agree -0.7 4 5 0.90
Negative Behavior Compositeb 0.0 4 5 0.70
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Reported Doing the
Following:
Helped their child with homework at least three times last week 8.4*** 8 4 0.00***
Checked on their child?s homework completion at least three times
last week 2.1 7 5 0.02**
Asked their child about things they were doing in class at least
seven times last month 6.3** 9 3 0.03**
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following at Least
Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 0.0 6 6 0.09
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 2.6 9 3 0.33
Attended an after-school event 9.2*** 11 1 0.17
Volunteered to help out at school -4.1 4 8 0.00***
Sample Sizec 1,539
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
a To examine the joint significance of the site impacts, we tested whether they were jointly significantly equal to the mean of the site impacts.
b The negative behavior composite is based on student responses to five questions regarding how often they (1) break something on purpose,
(2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, and (5) give a teacher a ?hard time.? Values on these items
range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level, while a value of 4 indicates a high level.
c Sample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
103
feeling unsafe after school, the impact was a reduction of three percentage points (an increase in
students? feeling safe). Across the sites, six had an impact estimate with a negative sign and
three sites had an impact with a positive sign. Similarly, we found a large positive impact for
whether parents attended after-school events?and, on closer inspection, 11 of 12 sites also had a
positive impact. We found no impact for whether parents attended a school open house, and
sites were divided evenly between positive (six sites) and negative impacts (six sites).
We also conducted tests to determine whether site impacts differed from the average impact.
Six of the 21 tests indicated that site impacts differed from the average impact (Table C.2). The
likely reason for these differences is that there were one or two large site impacts in the opposite
direction of the overall impact. This suggests that, for at least some outcomes, site-specific
factors were related to impacts.
3. Self-Care Alternative Definitions
Changing the definition of self-care altered its levels but did not change the impact findings.
We investigated four self-care definitions to assess the robustness of the estimated impact on
self-care: a student was defined to be in self-care if (1) the student did not spend at least 3 days
with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling in a typical week; (2) the student did not
spend at least 1 day with a parent, a non-parent adult, or an older sibling in a typical week;
(3) the student was alone at least 3 days in a typical week; and (4) the student was alone at least
1 day in a typical week. Overall, results from these additional analyses suggest that the
definition of self-care used does not affect the findings (Table C.3). In addition, using
nonresponse weights and regressors did not change the self-care findings. In all cases, the
impact of the program on self-care is insignificant.
104
Table C.3
Sensitivity of Various Self-Care Impact Estimates to Alternative Specifications, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Outcome
With
Nonresponse
Weights and
Regressors
With
Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
No
Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
No
Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
Percentage of Students in Self-Care at Least Three Days
After School in a Typical Week, According to Parent
Reports (Self-Care Defined as Not Being in Parent, Non-
Parent Adult, or Older Sibling Care) 0.1 0.0 0.0 -0.1
Any Self-Care After School in a Typical Week,
According to Parent Reports (Self-Care Defined as Not
Being in Parent, Non-Parent Adult, or Older Sibling
Care) -0.1 -1.7 -0.3 -0.4
Percentage of Students in Self-Care at Least Three Days
After School in a Typical Week, According to Parent
Reports (Self-Care Defined as Being Alone After School) 0.0 0.6 0.0 -0.1
Any Self-Care After School in a Typical Week,
According to Parent Reports (Self-Care Defined as Being
Alone After School) 1.1 1.6 0.8 0.8
Sample Size 1,719 1,719 1,719 1,719
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
105
B. Middle Schools
1. Regression Adjustment for Baseline Differences
Middle school treatment and comparison groups differed on several baseline characteristics
after propensity score matching (see Chapter III, Table III.2). To increase the validity of the
outcome difference estimates, we used regression models to adjust for baseline differences.
We tested the efficacy of regression adjustment by estimating regression models in which
the baseline outcome is the dependent variable. If regression adjustment was successful, there
should be no impact of being in the treatment group on the baseline outcome, because at that
point students had not yet been ?treated.? However, the regression models we used to estimate
outcome differences included the baseline value of the outcome, which generally is the most
powerful predictor of the follow-up value of the outcome. Testing the efficacy of regression
adjustment for the same model would have required a pre-baseline value of the outcome (the
model would have the baseline outcome as a dependent variable and have the pre-baseline value
as a predictor variable along with other predictor variables). Since we have only the baseline
value of the outcome, we can only investigate how regression adjustment for other variables
reduces any baseline differences, which is a weaker test.
Table C.4 shows that regression adjustment substantially reduced baseline differences. The
first column presents raw difference at baseline between the treatment and comparison groups
for six variables. The third column shows the differences after adjusting for other baseline
variables except the outcome itself. For average grades, for example, the raw difference of ?0.94
(the treatment group?s average grades were 0.94 points lower than the comparison group?s on a
100-point scale) is statistically significant. The adjusted difference is very small, ?0.04, and not
significant. The tests show that regression adjustment did not remove all differences, however,
as is shown for the homework habits outcome. Instead, the tests suggest that the use of regression
106
Table C.4
Examining the Effect of Regressors on Baseline Differences between Treatment and Comparison Groups,
Middle School Centers
Outcome
Unadjusted
Treatment,
Comparison
Baseline
Difference
pvaluea
Regression-
Adjusted
Treatment,
Comparison
Baseline
Difference
pvaluea
Average Grades -0.94*** 0.01 -0.04 0.26
Mean of Homework Habits Indexb -0.05** 0.02 -0.05** 0.04
Student-Based Discipline Problem Compositec (Mean) 0.06*** 0.00 0.03 0.07
Negative Behavior Composited (Mean) 0.03 0.07 0.01 0.64
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use Compositee (Mean) 0.02 0.10 0.00 0.83
Mean of Safety Indexf -0.04** 0.03 -0.01 0.50
Sample Size 4,128
SOURCE: Student Survey.
aThe p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program
participants and comparison group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .01, the difference is
significant at the 1 percent level. If the p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and so on.
b
The homework habits index is based on student responses to how often they (1) do the homework the teachers assign, (2) do
homework in the same place each day, (3) do homework at the same time each day, and (4) write down homework assignments.
The index is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor homework habits, whereas a value
of 4 indicates good homework habits.
c
The student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school
or class, (2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to
school about a problem they are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the
composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
d
The negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they (1) break
something on purpose, (2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, and (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store,
(6) give a teacher a hard time, (7) sell illegal drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from
1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of
negative behavior.
e
The tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students (1) smoke cigarettes, (2) use
smokeless tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, and (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5) smoke
marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and (7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the
composite indicates no substance abuse, while a value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
f
The safety index mean is based on how often the student (1) feels safe walking in his or her neighborhood, (2) feels safe being at
home alone, (3) feels safe on the ground outside school, (4) feels safe going to the bathroom at school, and (5) feels safe in the
hallways at school. A value of 1 indicates feeling less safe and a value of 4 indicates feeling more safe.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
107
adjustment models did reduce differences between treatment and comparison groups, and the use
of baseline values for the outcome in the models that were used to estimate outcome differences
reported in the text is likely to have reduced differences further.
2. Use of Nonresponse Weights and Regression Adjustment Models
Table C.5 presents the results for the same analysis previously shown for the elementary
school design of the effects of using nonresponse weights and regression adjustment. Because of
the role regression adjustment plays in reducing baseline differences, we expect outcome
differences to differ when regression adjustment is used, and comparing the first two columns
indicates that they do. For example, whether students are in their own home after school was not
statistically significant when regression adjustment was used, and is more negative and
significant at the five percent significance level when regression adjustment is not used. Using
nonresponse weights also modified estimated outcome differences. Comparing the first and third
columns, a number of outcome differences are numerically different and have different levels of
statistical significance when weights are used. When regression adjustment is not used, weights
have almost no effect on outcome differences, which can be seen by comparing the results in the
second and fourth columns.
3. Consistency of Outcome Differences Across Sites
As with the elementary school design, we examined site-level outcome differences for the
middle school design to assess whether outcome differences were associated with outlying sites.
Table C.6 presents an example of the analysis. The table shows that statistically significant
outcome differences generally are evident when a majority of sites have an outcome difference
with the same sign. For example, we found a statistically significant increase in whether
108
Table C.5
Sensitivity of Outcome Differences to Alternative Specifications, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
With Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
With Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
Percentage of Students in the Following Types
of Supervision at Least Three Days After School
in a Typical Week:
Self-carea -0.8 -0.1 -1.4 -0.2
Parent care -2.1 -5.6*** -4.1** -5.8***
Nonparent adult care 5.3 6.8*** 7.4*** 6.6***
Sibling care -3.7** -4.8*** -5.1*** -4.6***
Mixed care (not in any one category for at least
three days) -1.4 -0.7 0.0 -0.6
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations
After School at Least Three Days in a Typical Week:
Own home -2.3 -4.5** -4.3** -4.7***
Someone else?s home 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.8
School or other place for activities 4.4** 5.9*** 6.8*** 5.6***
Somewhere to ?hang out? 2.4 1.1 0.8 1.2
Mixed location (not in one location for at least
three days) 0.4 -0.3 0.0 -0.2
Employment of Mother (parent-reported):
Full-time -2.7 -3.1 -2.4 -1.3
Part-time 2.2 1.0 1.7 1.0
Looking for work -0.4 0.2 -0.5 0.3
Not in the labor force 0.9 1.9 1.2 2.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
That They ?Often? Complete Their Homework -0.8 -5.3*** -0.8 -5.3***
Mean Grade:
Math 0.7 -0.7 0.7 -0.6
English 0.5 -0.9 0.5 -0.9**
Science 0.6 -0.7 0.7 -0.6
Social studies/history 1.7*** 0.6 1.5*** 0.4
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did
the Following at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 0.7 1.8 1.2 2.2
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 1.4 2.5 2.0 3.0
Attended an after-school event 1.8 1.6 1.3 0.8
Volunteered to help out at school 1.9 1.5 1.6 1.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling
the Following Levels of Safety After School
Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe -2.4 -3.4 -3.0 -3.7**
Somewhat safe 2.1 2.8 2.7 3.1
Not at all safe 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.6
Sample Sizeb 3,808 3,808 3,808 3,808
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
a
Students are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to non-response.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
109
Table C.6
Number of Sites with Positive or Negative Outcome Differences on Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome Difference
Number of
Positive Site
Differences
Number of
Negative Site
Differences
Joint
Significance of
Site Differences
(p-Value)a
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following
Levels of Safety After School Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe -2.4 11 21 0.01***
Somewhat safe 2.1 19 13 0.01**
Not at all safe 0.3 19 13 0.99
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following
?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Break something on purpose 2.4** 22 10 0.41
Punch or hit someone 2.7 17 15 0.41
Steal from a store 0.9 15 17 0.20
Sell illegal drugs -0.3 11 21 0.88
Get arrested or detained by police 0.2 15 17 0.10
Negative Behavior Compositeb (Mean) 0.03** 18 14 0.85
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Happened
to Them ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug -1.0 13 19 0.95
Been ?picked on? after school 3.0 23 9 0.00***
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 1.0 16 16 0.30
Been threatened by a gang or gang member 0.2 15 17 0.39
Had property damaged on purpose 2.4 20 12 0.00***
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following
?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 0.6 17 15 0.91
Have at least one alcoholic drink 0.8 17 15 0.09
Smoke marijuana 0.5 18 14 0.30
Take illegal drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy, or LSD 0.6*** 19 13 0.96
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use Compositec
(Mean) 0.02 16 16 0.27
Sample Sized 3,818
SOURCE: Student Survey.
a
To examine the joint significance of the site estimates, we tested whether they were jointly significantly equal to the mean of the site
estimates.
b
The negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they (1) break something on
purpose, (2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store, (6) give a teacher a hard
time, (7) sell illegal drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the
composite indicates a low level of negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of negative behavior.
c
The tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students (1) smoke cigarettes, (2) use
smokeless tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5) smoke marijuana, (6) use
inhalants, and (7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates no
substance abuse, while a value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
dSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test
110
students reported that they ?broke things on purpose,? and 22 of the 32 sites also had an increase
in this behavior.
4. Alternative Definitions of Self-Care
As we did with the elementary school impacts, we investigated four self-care definitions to
assess the robustness of the estimated outcome difference on self-care: a student was defined to
be in self-care if (1) the student did not spend at least 3 days with a parent, a nonparent adult, or
an older sibling in a typical week; (2) the student did not spend at least 1 day with a parent, a
nonparent adult, or an older sibling in a typical week; (3) the student was alone at least 3 days in
a typical week; and (4) the student was alone at least one day in a typical week. Overall, results
from these additional analyses suggest that the definition of self-care used does not affect the
findings (Table C.7).
Table C.7 also shows how estimates change with the inclusion of weights and regressors. In
general, their inclusion does not affect estimates. However, estimates from one definition of selfcare
do change, depending on whether regressors and weights are included. When regressors are
not included and nonresponse weights are included, the estimate of the outcome difference on
self-care defined as being alone at least 3 days in a week is statistically significant. When
regressors are included to control for baseline differences between students, which was shown to
be necessary because of some baseline differences between treatment and comparison students?
the estimates become insignificant.
5. Findings for Students With Program Access
The study estimated outcome differences for students who had access to centers during the
second year of the study, because many students had graduated to high school or transferred to
111
Table C.7
Sensitivity of Alternative Self-Care Outcome Differences to Alternative Specifications, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
With
Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
With
Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, with
Regressors
No Nonresponse
Weights, No
Regressors
Percentage of Students Who Report Being in Self-
Care at Least Three Days After School in a Typical
Week (Self-Care Defined as Not Being in Parent,
Nonparent Adult, or Older Sibling Care)
-0.8 -0.1 -1.4 -0.2
Any Self-Care After School in a Typical Week,
According to Student Reports (Self-Care Defined
as Not Being in Parent, Nonparent Adult, or Older
Sibling Care)
-1.3 0.5 -1.0 0.1
Percentage of Students Who Report Being in Self-
Care at Least Three Days After School in a Typical
Week (Self-Care Defined as Being Alone After
School)
-1.1 -1.7** -1.1 -1.6
Any Self-Care after School in a Typical Week,
According to Student Reports (Self-Care Defined
as Being Alone After School)
-1.0 -1.3 -0.9 -1.3
Sample Size 3,808 3,808 3,808 3,808
SOURCE: Student Survey.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
112
other schools and, therefore, did not have access to a 21st Century center in the study?s second
year.
Including only students who had access required modifying the comparison group. We first
identified students in the full comparison group who had been matched at baseline to treatmentgroup
students who had access. This comparison group was older, on average, than the group of
treatment students with program access, an artifact of the initial matching process. The age
difference arises because treatment students with program access mostly were 6th and 7th
graders (nearly all 8th graders had moved on to high school and no longer had access to centers).
However, the initial comparison group still included 8th graders because in the original matching
process some 6th- and 7th-grade treatment students were matched to 8th-grade comparison
students. The matching method used to construct the treatment and comparison groups did not
force students who were matched to be in the same grade.
To create more balance in the comparison group, we dropped from the treatment and
comparison groups any students who did not have a matching student at the same grade level
(6th graders to 6th graders and 7th graders to 7th graders). The result was that 356 treatmentgroup
members who were matched at baseline with comparison-group members at other grade
levels were dropped.
Baseline characteristics of students with access to the program were similar for the
rebalanced groups (Table C.8). Only student feelings of safety differed between the two groups,
a difference that also was found for the full sample of students.
Location, Supervision, and Activities After School. Students with access to centers were
less likely to be in parent care and less likely to be in their own homes after school, and more
likely to be in the care of other adults (Table C.9; effect sizes of 0.07, 0.14, and 0.18,
respectively). Whether self-care was significantly reduced for students with program access is
113
Table C.8
Characteristics of Center Participants and Comparison-Group Students:
Middle School Centers
Full Sample Students with Access to the Program
Characteristic
Percentage of
Program
Participants
Percentage of
Comparison
Group
Members p-valuea
Percentage
of Program
Participants
Percentage
of
Comparison
Group
Members p-valuea
Demographics
Gender
Male 47.3 46.5 0.62 46.5 47.4 0.77
Female 52.7 53.5 0.62 53.5 52.7 0.77
Race/Ethnicity
White (non-Hispanic) 38.2 40.6 0.33 41.9 41.2 0.19
Black (non-Hispanic) 27.7 24.7 0.33 26.1 23.3 0.19
Hispanic 12.3 12.0 0.33 12.6 10.8 0.19
Other 15.5 15.9 0.33 14.7 17.3 0.19
Mixed race 6.3 6.9 0.33 4.6 7.3 0.19
Grade Level
6 20.7 21.6 0.19 29.5 29.8 0.47
7 37.8 38.2 0.19 55.7 56.4 0.47
8 33.7 34.1 0.19 4.2 5.5 0.47
Other or ungraded 7.8 6.2 0.19 10.5 8.4 0.47
Primary Language in the Home is
Not English 17.8 18.9 0.39 14.3 17.3 0.19
Academic and Other Outcomes
at Baseline
Student-Reported Baseline Grades
Mostly A?s 30.4 34.1 0.00*** 32.1 35.0 0.57
Mostly B?s 35.8 36.5 0.00*** 37.7 38.2 0.57
Mostly C?s 23.2 21.3 0.00*** 20.7 18.6 0.57
Mostly D?s or below 8.8 7.5 0.00*** 7.9 7.4 0.57
Not graded 1.8 0.7 0.00*** 1.6 0.8 0.57
Average Grades 83.1 84.0 0.01*** 84.1 84.5 0.41
Homework
Mother or father helps student
with homework 63.1 63.2 0.93 67.1 63.6 0.19
Mean of homework habits
indexb 2.80 2.85 0.02** 2.86 2.85 0.95
Mean of Index of Positive
Behaviorc 3.02 3.01 0.52 3.06 3.05 0.80
Student-Based Discipline Problem
Composited (Mean) 1.39 1.33 0.00*** 1.36 1.34 0.47
Mean of Parental Discipline Indexe 2.92 2.94 0.46 3.00 2.99 0.92
Negative Behavior Compositef
(Mean) 1.55 1.52 0.07 1.51 1.50 0.98
Mean of Index of Empathyg 3.10 3.10 0.94 3.16 3.14 0.73
Mean of Index of Controlling
Destinyh 3.00 3.00 0.81 3.05 3.03 0.67
Table C.8 (continued)
114
Full Sample Students with Access to the Program
Characteristic
Percentage of
Program
Participants
Percentage of
Comparison
Group
Members p-valuea
Percentage
of Program
Participants
Percentage
of
Comparison
Group
Members p-valuea
Student-Reported Tobacco,
Alcohol, and Drug Use
Composite (Mean)i 1.12 1.11 0.10 1.10 1.09 0.33
Mean of Safety Indexj 3.33 3.37 0.03** 3.28 3.35 0.04**
Sample Sizek 1,727 2,385 664 604
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
aThe p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program participants and
comparison group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and if
the p-value is less than .01, the difference is significant at the 1 percent level.
bThe homework habits index is based on student responses to how often they (1) do the homework the teachers assign, (2) do homework in the
same place each day, (3) do homework at the same time each day, and (4) write down homework assignments. The index is equal to the mean
of the four variables. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor homework habits, whereas a value of 4 indicates good homework habits.
c
The positive behavior index is based on how often the student (1) helps another kid in school, (2) helps her parents, and (3) goes to church,
temple, or mosque. A value of 1 on the index indicates never doing the aforementioned, while a value of 4 indicates doing them often.
dThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class,
(2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem they
are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems,
while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
eThe parental discipline index is based on student responses to how often parents (1) check on whether homework is completed, (2) limit the
amount of time available to watch TV, (3) decide which TV shows their kids are allowed to watch, and (4) tell their children not to drink alcohol
or use drugs. A value of 1 on the composite indicates parents who engage in less discipline, while a value of 4 indicates parents who engage in
more discipline.
fThe negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they (1) break something on purpose,
(2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store, (6) give a teacher a hard time, (7) sell illegal
drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of
negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of negative behavior.
gThe empathy index is based on student ratings of ability (1) work with others on a team or on a group project, (2) feel bad for other people when
they are having a hard time, and (3) believe the best about other people. A value of 1 on the index indicates poor ability, while a value of 4
indicates excellent ability.
hThe controlling destiny index is based on student ratings of ability (1) set goals and work to achieve them, (2) plan for things needed in the
future, (3) work out conflicts or disagreements with others, and (4) stick to beliefs even if friends disagree. A value of 1 on the index indicates
poor ability, while a value of 4 indicates excellent ability.
iThe tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students (1) smoke cigarettes, (2) use smokeless
tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5) smoke marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and
(7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates no substance abuse, while a
value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
jThe safety index is based on how often the student (1) feels safe walking in his or her neighborhood, (2) feels safe being at home alone, (3) feels
safe on the ground outside school, (4) feels safe going to the bathroom at school, and (5) feels safe in the hallways at school. A value of 1
indicates feeling less safe and a value of 4 indicates feeling more safe.
kSample sizes may differ due to missing values.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
115
Table C.9
Outcome Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision, and Activities After School,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for
Students with
Program Access
Percentage of Students With the Following Individuals
at Least Three Days After School in a Typical Week:
Self-carea 19.0 19.8 -0.8 -4.7***
Parent 50.9 53.0 -2.1 -3.5***
Nonparent adult 33.9 28.6 5.3 8.4***
Sibling 17.5 21.2 -3.7** -1.4
Mixed (Not in any one category for at least three days) 4.0 5.4 -1.4 -2.3
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations
After School at Least Three Days in a Typical Week:
Own home 69.2 71.5 -2.3 -6.6***
Someone else?s home 12.6 11.8 0.8 1.2
School or other place for activities 27.5 23.2 4.4** 8.3**
Somewhere to ?hang out? 12.9 10.5 2.4 1.0
Mixed location (Not in one location for at least three
days) 8.2 7.8 0.4 1.8
Employment of Mother (Parent-reported):
Full-time 59.9 62.6 -2.7 0.8
Part-time 15.7 13.4 2.2 0.6
Looking for work 8.7 9.1 -0.4 0.3
Not in the labor force 15.7 14.9 0.9 0.3
Mean Number of Days Stayed After School for Activities
in Typical Week 1.0 0.8 0.2** 0.4***
Percentage of Students Who Participated in the Following
Activities After School:
Homework 84.6 86.7 -2.2 -0.6
Tutoring 18.1 15.1 3.0 5.1
Non-homework reading, writing, or science activities 43.9 41.9 2.0 7.1***
School activities (Band, drama, etc.) 32.1 29.3 2.7 6.6***
Lessons (Music, art, dance, etc.) 23.8 20.7 3.2** 3.5
Organized sports 41.5 40.1 1.5 2.7
Clubs (Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, etc.) 15.7 12.2 3.5** 2.7
Activities at church, temple, mosque 30.5 29.6 1.0 0.6
Watched TV or videos 89.1 87.7 1.5 0.9
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer 64.9 64.8 0.2 3.9
?Hung out? with friends 82.1 78.1 4.1*** 7.1***
Volunteered or did community service 17.8 15.4 2.4 4.2***
Worked at a job 20.5 19.0 1.6 4.4
Did chores around the house 77.8 79.0 -1.3 -2.3
Took care of a brother or sister 50.3 49.7 0.7 1.1
Mean Time Students Reported Watching Television
in the Past Day (Hours) 2.0 2.0 0.02 -0.01
Mean Time Students Reported Reading for Fun in
the Past Day (Hours) 0.3 0.3 0.02 0.03**
Sample Sizeb 1,605 2,203 1,176
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
Table C.9 (continued)
116
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators of
students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due
to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the
comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for non-response. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for
the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed, and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
117
unclear. We looked at four different definitions of self-care, and one of the four differed
significantly between the treatment and comparison groups.
Students who had access to centers were more likely to participate in non-homework
reading, writing, or science activities; school activities; and volunteering (effect sizes of 0.14,
0.14, and 0.12, respectively).
Academic Outcomes. Students with access to centers did not differ from comparison
students on homework completion, time spent working on homework, suspensions, absenteeism,
lateness, or math, English, science, or history grades (Tables C.10 and C.11). The outcome
difference for history grades differed between the full sample of students and students with
program access. The outcome difference for history grades was significant for the full sample of
students, but was insignificant for students with program access.
Classroom effort is another area in which there are differences between the estimates based
on the full sample of students and those based on students with program access. Students with
access to centers had significantly higher levels of effort according to teachers (effect size of
0.10). This finding is consistent with the findings in the first report, which also showed
increased classroom effort.
Homework Assistance. Students with access to centers were more likely to have their
homework checked by other adults (Table C.12). In particular, they were more likely to have an
adult ask if their homework was complete, look at their homework to see if it was correct, and
explain homework in an understandable way. There was no difference in whether students
received homework assistance either from parents or other adults.
Educational Aspirations. Here there were no differences between treatment students with
program access and comparison students (Table C.13). This estimate differs from the full
sample estimate, in which treatment students were more likely to aspire to graduate from college.
118
Table C.10
Outcome Differences in Homework Completion and on Behavior and Level of Effort in the Classroom,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for
Students with
Program Access
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They
?Often? or ?Always? Complete the Homework
Teachers Assign 81.3 83.0 -1.7 -6.4
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
That They ?Often? Complete Their Homework 49.8 50.5 -0.8 1.6
Mean Amount of Time Students Spent Doing
Homework the Last Time They Had Homework
(Hours) 0.9 1.0 -0.1 -0.06
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
the Following:
?Agree? or ?strongly agree? that student
completes assignments to the teacher?s
satisfaction 53.4 55.2 -1.8 3.3
Student ?usually tries hard? in English class 49.3 48.4 1.0 2.9
Student ?often? performs at or above ability
level 41.5 43.8 -2.3 -1.3
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Compositea
(Mean) 3.5 3.5 0.0 0.10***
Percentage of Students Who Reported that They
Pay Attention to their Teachers in School 83.4 87.1 -3.7** -2.4
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? That Their Child Works Hard
at School 78.5 76.0 2.5 -2.7
Student-Based Discipline Problem Compositeb
(Mean) 1.4 1.4 0.0 0.07***
Teacher-Based Discipline Problem Compositec
(Mean) 1.4 1.4 0.0 -0.03**
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended
During 2001-2002 School Year 21.9 21.7 0.2 1.6
Mean Number of Days Student Was:
Absent 9.0 10.0 -1.0** -0.3
Late 6.2 5.4 0.8 0.8
Sample Sized 1,633 2,198 1,150
SOURCE: Student Survey, Teacher Survey, Parent Survey, School Records.
Table C.10 (continued)
119
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores,
attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown
in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical
sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences.
aThe level of effort composite is based on five items reported by teachers: whether the student (1) usually tries hard, (2) often
performs at or above his or her ability level, (3) is attentive in class, (4) participates in class, and (5) volunteers in class. The
composite is equal to the mean of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite
indicates a low level of effort, and a value of 5 indicates a high level of effort.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school
or class, (2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to
school about a problem they are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the
composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
c
The teacher-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which the teacher reports that student are
(1) skipping school or class, (2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their
parents called to school about a problem they are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of
1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
d
Sample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
120
Table C.11
Outcome Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison-
Group
Members
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for Students
with Program Access
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
Reported That They Achieve at an ?Above-
Average? or ?Very High? Level 31.3 33.8 -2.5 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That They Get
Good Grades on Tests 50.8 51.8 -1.0 1.2
Teacher-Reported Achievement Composite
(Mean)a 3.3 3.3 0.0 0.04
Mean Grade
Math 79.3 78.6 0.7 1.1
English 80.1 79.6 0.5 0.6
Science 79.6 79.0 0.6 0.6
Social studies/history 81.6 79.8 1.7*** 1.7
Sample Sizeb 1,533 2,126 1,150
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores,
attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown
in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical
sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to
estimate outcome differences.
a
The teacher-reported achievement composite is based on teacher responses to five questions: (1) At what level is this student
performing in reading? (2) Does this student get good grades on tests? (3) Does this student complete assignments to my
satisfaction? (4) Does this student have good communication skills? (5) Is this student a proficient reader? Values on these
items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite indicates low achievement, and a value of 5 indicates high achievement.
bSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
121
Table C.12
Outcome Differences in Quality of Homework Assistance, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for
Students with
Program Access
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent
?Often? or ?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 76.1 76.1 0.0 0.8
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 42.5 45.1 -2.7 -3.3
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 38.5 41.8 -3.3 -2.0
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 45.3 49.4 -4.1 -3.5
Percentage of Students Who Reported That an Adult Who is
Not Their Parent ?Often? or ?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 38.8 35.3 3.5 8.3***
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 29.1 28.4 0.8 1.7
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 29.4 25.8 3.6 5.9**
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 35.3 33.7 1.6 5.8**
Percentage of Students Who Reported That Their Parent or
an Adult Who is Not Their Parent ?Often? or ?Always?:
Asks if homework is complete 80.5 80.4 0.1 1.5
Looks at homework to see if it is complete 52.0 52.6 -0.6 -1.8
Looks at homework to see if it is correct 49.2 49.1 0.1 0.5
Explains homework in a way that is easy to understand 56.6 58.5 -1.9 0.1
Percentage of Students Who Had the Following Individual
Ask the Child To Correct Parts of Homework:
Parent 75.0 76.3 -1.3 -0.1
An adult who is not their parent 57.1 54.6 2.5 2.9
A parent or an adult who is not their parent 83.3 83.1 0.1 0.5
Sample Sizea 1,633 2,198 1,062
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators
of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades.
Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants
and the comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to
account for the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes
methods used to estimate outcome differences.
a
Sample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
122
Table C.13
Outcome Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations, and Parental Involvement,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison-Group
Members
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for
Students with
Program Access
Social Engagement Compositea (Mean) 3.54 3.56 -0.02 -0.01
Peer Interaction/Empathy Compositeb (Mean) 3.01 3.03 -0.02 0.02
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as
?Good? or ?Excellent? at Working Out Conflicts with
Others 57.4 60.7 -3.3 -6.0***
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as
?Good? or ?Excellent? on Using a Computer to Look Up
Information 36.9 36.6 0.3 0.6
Percentage of Students Who Think They Will:
Graduate from college 82.1 79.6 2.5** 2.8
Graduate from high school but not college 16.5 18.5 -2.0 -3.4
Attend high school but not graduate 1.4 1.9 -0.6 0.5
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the
Following at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 19.5 18.8 0.7 0.0
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 26.8 25.4 1.4 3.9
Attended an after-school event 38.8 37.0 1.8 0.5
Volunteered to help out at school 16.1 14.2 1.9 3.2**
Sample Sizec 1,601 2,208 1,168
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been regression-adjusted for
baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include student characteristics such as indicators
of students? demographic characteristics, students? baseline test scores, attendance, disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades.
Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table do not always equal the difference between center participants
and the comparison group. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to
account for the statistical sampling design. Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes
methods used to estimate outcome differences. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
a
The social engagement composite is based on five items: the extent to which students report that they (1) have friends to ?hang out with,? 2) are
never lonely, (3) get along with others their age, (4) find it easy to make new friends, and (5) never feel left out of things. The composite is equal
to the mean of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of social
engagement, and a value of 4 indicates a high level of engagement.
bThe peer interaction/empathy composite is based on three items: students? rating of their ability to (1) work with others on a team or in a group,
(2) feel bad for other people who are having difficulties, and (3) believe the best about other people. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a
value of 1 on the composite indicates poor peer interactions, while a value of 4 indicates excellent peer interactions.
cSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
123
Social, Emotional, and Developmental Outcomes. There were few significant differences
in these outcomes among students with program access (Table C.13).
Social engagement, empathy for others, and the ability to use a computer to look up
information did not differ between the two groups. Students with program access were less
likely to rate themselves highly at working out conflicts with others.
Parental Involvement. For students who had access to centers, parents were more likely to
volunteer at school (Table C.13). This finding is consistent with findings from the first-year
report. It is worth noting, however, that only one of the four parent-involvement estimates is
statistically significant for students with program access, while all four estimates were significant
in the first report.
Feelings of Safety. There were no differences between treatment students with program
access and comparison students in feelings of safety after school (Table C.14).
Negative Behaviors. There was mixed evidence on negative behaviors for students with
program access (Table C.14). Among students who had access to centers, there was an increase
in punching or hitting someone. However, there were no differences between the two groups on
other measures of negative behavior, such as breaking something on purpose or stealing from a
store.
Victimization. There was mixed evidence on victimization for students with access to the
program in the study?s second year (Table C.14). For students who had access to the program,
there was an increase in being picked on after school. At the same time, there were no
differences between the two groups on other outcomes such as being threatened with a weapon
or by a gang.
Drug and Alcohol Use. Among students with program access, there was mixed evidence
on the use of drugs and alcohol (Table C.14). Treatment students were more likely than
124
Table C.14
Outcome Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome
Center
Participants
Comparison
Group
Difference for
Full Sample
Difference for
Students with
Program Access
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling
the Following Levels of Safety After School
Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very Safe 64.6 66.9 -2.4 1.2
Somewhat safe 32.7 30.6 2.1 -1.9
Not at all safe 2.7 2.5 0.3 0.7
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They
Do the Following ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Break something on purpose 10.4 8.0 2.4** 1.8
Punch or hit someone 22.4 19.7 2.7 2.6**
Steal from a store 4.9 4.0 0.9 1.2
Sell illegal drugs 1.4 1.8 -0.3 -0.6
Get arrested or detained by police 3.3 3.1 0.2 0.9
Negative Behavior Compositea (Mean) 1.56 1.53 0.03** 0.05
Percentage of Students Who Reported
the Following Happened to Them ?Some? or
?A Lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug 18.1 19.1 -1.0 -1.9
Been ?picked on? after school 27.7 24.7 3.0 4.5**
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 6.8 5.9 1.0 0.5
Been threatened by a gang or gang member 7.2 7.0 0.2 -0.1
Had property damaged on purpose 13.5 11.1 2.4 3.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They
Do the Following ?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 4.7 4.1 0.6 -0.2
Have at least one alcoholic drink 9.8 9.0 0.8 1.1
Smoke marijuana 4.8 4.3 0.5 -0.1
Take illegal drugs such as cocaine, ecstasy,
or LSD 0.8 0.2 0.6*** 0.5**
Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use Compositeb
(Mean) 1.14 1.12 0.02 1.7
Sample Sizec 1,609 2,209 1,174
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: The percentages and mean values of outcomes for participants and comparison-group members have been
regression-adjusted for baseline differences between the groups. The control variables in the regressions include
student characteristics such as indicators of students? demographic characteristics, baseline test scores, attendance,
disciplinary problems, and self-reported grades. Due to rounding, estimated outcome differences shown in the table
do not always equal the difference between center participants and the comparison group. Weights are used to adjust
estimates for nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
Appendix A describes how weights were constructed and Appendix B describes methods used to estimate outcome
differences. Percentages may not sum to 100 because of rounding.
aThe negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they: (1) break
something on purpose, (2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store,
(6) give a teacher a hard time, (7) sell illegal drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from
Table C.14 (continued)
125
1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of
negative behavior.
bThe tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students report that they (1) smoke
cigarettes, (2) use smokeless tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row,
(5) smoke marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and (7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1
on the composite indicates no substance abuse, while a value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
cSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
126
comparison students to report using cocaine, ecstasy, or LSD. However, there were no
differences between the two groups on the extent to which students smoked cigarettes, drank
alcohol, or smoked marijuana.
6. The Relationship Between Center Attendance and Outcomes
Having two years of attendance and outcome data allows us to explore the relationship
between attendance and outcomes that could not be explored in the first report because only one
year of data was available. Students could attend more or less often in the two years, and the
differences in attendance could affect outcomes. Because we can observe the same students in
two different time periods, the influence of unobservable factors that may vary across students,
and that may affect both attendance and outcomes, can be reduced.
The analysis of the relationship between center attendance and outcomes found that some
outcomes improved when students attended centers more often. The incidence of self-care was
lower, students exerted greater effort in class, and parents were more involved (Tables C.15
through C.19). For example, if students attended centers for 40 days compared to 30 days, the
likelihood that they were in self-care fell by 2.2 percentage points, and the likelihood that they
were supervised by other adults increased by a roughly offsetting amount, 2.5 percentage points
(Table C.15).44 Attending centers more often also increased student participation in tutoring and
school activities and the number of days students stayed after school for activities. (Tables C.15).
However, attending centers more often did not improve academic outcomes such as course
44We estimated models that allowed for impacts of attendance to differ, depending on the initial level of
attendance. For example, additional attendance could have different impacts when the initial attendance level is low
than when it is high. Statistical significance also could differ, depending on the estimated impact. Some impacts
were statistically significant at lower levels of initial attendance but not at higher levels, and vice versa. For
example, attending centers more often had a statistically significant impact on student achievement in the classroom
as reported by teachers when the initial attendance level was 10 days, but attending centers more often did not have
a statistically significant impact when the initial attendance level was 30 days (Table C.17).
127
Table C.15
Differences in Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision,
and Activities After School by Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Marginal Effect of Attending the After-School Program
10 More Days
Outcome
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 10 Days
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 30 Days
Percentage of Students with the Following Individuals at Least Three Days
after School in a Typical Week:
Self-careb -2.84 -2.23**
Parent 0.79 -0.07
Nonparent adult 1.29 2.50**
Sibling 0.74 1.02
Mixed (not in any one category for at least three days) 0.61 -1.94
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at Least
Three Days in a Typical Week:
Own home -1.38 -2.53**
Someone else?s home -4.78** -3.13***
School or other place for activities 2.38 3.34***
Somewhere to ?hang out? -2.57 -0.84
Mixed location (not in one location for at least three days) 1.95 1.92
Employment of Mother:
Full-time 0.88 -0.75
Part-time -1.42 1.72
Looking for work 1.54 1.16
Not in the labor force -1.42 -1.68
Mean Number of Days Stayed after School for Activities in Typical Week 0.18 0.16***
Percentage of Students Participating in the Following Activities
After School:
Homework 1.85 0.70
Tutoring 5.37*** 3.98***
Non-homework reading, writing, or science activities 3.35 1.44
School activities (band, drama, etc.) 4.26*** 2.94***
Lessons (music, art, dance, etc.) 0.86 1.98
Organized sports 2.41 0.66
Clubs (Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, etc.) 2.61 1.58
Activities at church, temple, mosque 1.01
0.81
Watched TV or videos -2.13 -1.81
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer -0.22 0.83
?Hung out? with friends -0.41 -0.09
Volunteered or did community service 1.90 1.75
Worked at a job 1.59 1.50
Did chores around the house 0.18 -0.75
Took care of a brother or sister 0.56 0.24
Mean Time Students Reported Watching Television in the Past Day (Hours) 0.04 -0.02
Mean Time Students Reported Reading for Fun in the Past Day (Hours) 0.00 0.00
Sample Sizec 813
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
Table C.15 (continued)
128
NOTE: All regressions include both linear and squared attendance terms to capture any diminishing returns to attendance. For binary
outcomes, we use the logit command in STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect
are estimated by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be
underestimated. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects models by regressing the change in the outcome on the
change in attendance and we use SUDAAN? to take into account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors.
Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
a
The p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program participants and
comparison group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .01, the difference is significant at the 1 percent level. If the
p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and so on.
bStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
cSample sizes can differ substantially both due to nonresponse and because the conditional logit drops all observations where the outcome does
not change across time. The smallest sample size in this table is 223 for outcome ?Mother not in labor force.? The largest sample size is 3,277
for outcome ?Mean Time Students Reported Watching Television in the Past Day (Hours)?. The sample size reported in the table is the median
sample size for the outcomes in this table.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
129
Table C.16
Differences in Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Behavior in the Classroom
by Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Marginal Effect of Attending the After-School Program
10 More Days
Outcome
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 10 Days
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 30 Days
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That:
Student ?Often? Completes their Homework 1.62
-0.12
They ?Agree? or ?strongly agree? that student completes assignments
to the teacher?s satisfaction 3.87 1.23
Student ?usually tries hard? in English class 2.54 0.52
Student ?often? performs at or above ability level 3.84 2.16
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Compositea (Mean) 0.08*** 0.03**
Percentage of Students Who Report that They Pay Attention
to Their Teachers in School 1.05 0.41
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That
Their Child Works Hard at School -1.34 -1.17
Student-Based Discipline Problem Compositeb (Mean) -0.01 -0.01
Teacher-Based Discipline Problem Compositec (Mean) -0.05 -0.03**
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended During 2001-2002 School
Year -5.42 -1.31
Mean Number of Days Student Was:
Absent -0.16 -0.24
Late 0.23 0.01
Sample Sized 900
SOURCE: Student Survey, Teacher Survey, Parent Survey, School Records.
NOTE: All regressions include both linear and squared attendance terms to capture any diminishing returns to attendance. For binary
outcomes, we use the logit command in STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect
are estimated by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be
underestimated. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects models by regressing the change in the outcome on the
change in attendance and we use SUDAAN? to take into account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors.
Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aThe level of effort composite is based on five items reported by teachers: whether the student (1) usually tries hard, (2) often performs at or
above his or her ability level, (3) is attentive in class, (4) participates in class, and (5) volunteers in class. The composite is equal to the mean
of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of effort, and a value of 5
indicates a high level of effort.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class,
(2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem
they are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline
problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
cThe teacher-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which the teacher reports that the students: (1) skip
school or class, (2) get sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) get detention, and (4) have their parents called to school about a
problem they are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent
discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems.
dSample sizes can differ substantially both due to nonresponse and because the conditional logit drops all observations where the outcome does
not change across time. The smallest sample size in this table is 512 for outcome ?Student ?Often? Completes His or Her Homework.? The
largest sample size is 3,267 for outcome ?Student-Based Discipline Problem Composite (Mean)?. The sample size reported in the table is the
median sample size for the outcomes in this table.
Table C.15 (continued)
130
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
131
Table C.17
Differences in Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades by Attendance,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Marginal Effect of Attending the After-School Program
10 More Days
Outcome
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 10 Days
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 30 Days
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That They Achieve
at an ?Above- Average? or ?Very High? Level 3.71 -0.07
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That -
They Get Good Grades on Tests 2.20 1.55
Teacher-Reported Achievement Composite (Mean)a 0.05** 0.01
Mean Grade:
Math 0.58 0.25
English 0.27 0.17
Science -0.08 0.03
Social studies/history 0.05 -0.03
Sample Sizeb 2,588
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: All regressions include both linear and squared attendance terms to capture any diminishing returns to attendance. For binary
outcomes, we use the logit command in STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect
are estimated by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be
underestimated. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects models by regressing the change in the outcome on the
change in attendance and we use SUDAAN? to take into account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors.
Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aThe teacher-reported achievement composite is based on teacher responses to five questions: (1) At what level is this student performing in
reading? (2) Does this student get good grades on tests? (3) Does this student complete assignments to my satisfaction? (4) Does this student
have good communication skills? (5) Is this student a proficient reader? Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the
composite indicates low achievement, and a value of 5 indicates high achievement.
b
Sample sizes can differ substantially both due to nonresponse and because the conditional logit drops all observations where the outcome does
not change across time. The smallest sample size in this table is 459 for outcome ?Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Report That They
Achieve at an ?Above-Average? or ?Very High? Level.? The largest sample size is 2,890 for outcome ?English Grade.? The sample size
reported in the table is the median sample size for the outcomes in this table.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
132
Table C.18
Differences in Social Engagement, Educational Expectations, and Parental Involvement by Attendance,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Marginal Effect of Attending the After-School Program
10 More Days
Outcome
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 10 Days
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 30 Days
Social Engagement Compositea (Mean) 0.00 0.00
Peer Interaction/Empathy Compositeb (Mean) -0.01 -0.01
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or ?Excellent?
at Working Out Conflicts with Others -0.25 -0.74
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves as ?Good? or ?Excellent?
on Using a Computer to Look Up Information 0.14 0.26
Percentage of Students Who Think They Will:
Graduate from college 0.35 0.43
Graduate from high school but not college -1.61 -0.77
Attend high school but not graduate 7.88** 1.52
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following at Least Three
Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at the school 3.39 2.92**
Attended parent-teacher organization meetings 4.21** 2.69***
Attended an after-school event 3.62 2.59**
Volunteered to help out at school 2.30 0.16
Sample Sizec 759
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: All regressions include both linear and squared attendance terms to capture any diminishing returns to attendance. For binary
outcomes, we use the logit command in STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect
are estimated by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be
underestimated. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects models by regressing the change in the outcome on the
change in attendance and we use SUDAAN? to take into account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors.
Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
a
The social engagement composite is based on five items: the extent to which students report that they (1) have friends to ?hang out with,? (2) are
never lonely, (3) get along with others their age, (4) find it easy to make new friends, and (5) never feel left out of things. The composite is equal
to the mean of the five variables. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a low level of social
engagement, and a value of 4 indicates a high level of engagement.
bThe peer interaction/empathy composite is based on three items: students? rating of their ability to (1) work with others on a team or in a group,
(2) feel bad for other people who are having difficulties, and (3) believe the best about other people. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a
value of 1 on the composite indicates poor peer interactions, while a value of 4 indicates excellent peer interactions.
cSample sizes can differ substantially both due to nonresponse and because the conditional logit drops all observations where the outcome does
not change across time. The smallest sample size in this table is 108 for outcome ?Attend high school but not graduate.? The largest sample size
is 3,282 for outcome ?Social Engagement Composite (Mean).? The sample size reported in the table is the median sample size for the outcomes
in this table.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
133
Table C.19
Differences in Student Safety, Negative Behavior, and Victimization by Attendance, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Marginal Effect of Attending the After-School Program
10 More Days
Outcome
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 10 Days
Effect of 10 More Days For
Those Attending 30 Days
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels of Safety
After School Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very Safe -2.20 -1.45
Somewhat safe 1.36 1.07
Not at all safe 5.27 2.25
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following ?Some?
or ?A Lot?:
Break something on purpose -1.48 -0.24
Punch or hit someone 1.17 -0.42
Steal from a store 0.72 0.02
Sell illegal drugs 1.96 2.55
Get arrested or detained by police 1.34 0.48
Negative Behavior Compositeb (Mean) 0.01 0.00
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Happened to Them
?Some? or ?A Lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug -2.81 -1.25
Been ?picked on? after school 3.11 1.10
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 2.34 0.29
Been threatened by a gang or gang member 4.76 1.39
Had property damaged on purpose 2.42 -0.39
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following ?Some?
or ?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes -4.33 -4.91
Have at least one alcoholic drink -4.08 -2.89
Smoke marijuana -3.51 -3.58
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use Compositec (Mean) 0.00 0.00
Sample Sized 391
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: All regressions include both linear and squared attendance terms to capture any diminishing returns to attendance. For binary
outcomes, we use the logit command in STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect
are estimated by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be
underestimated. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects models by regressing the change in the outcome on the
change in attendance and we use SUDAAN? to take into account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors.
Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aThe p-value is the smallest level of significance at which the null hypothesis that the difference in means between program participants and
comparison group members equals zero can be rejected. If the p-value is less than .01, the difference is significant at the 1 percent level. If the
p-value is less than .05, the difference is significant at the 5 percent level, and so on.
bThe negative behavior composite is based on student responses to eight questions regarding how frequently they: (1) break something on
purpose, (2) punch or hit someone, (3) argue with their parents, (4) lie to their parents, (5) steal from a store, (6) give a teacher a hard time, (7)
sell illegal drugs, and (8) get arrested or detained by police. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates a
low level of negative behavior, while a value of 4 indicates a high level of negative behavior.
Table C.19 (continued)
134
cThe tobacco, alcohol, and drug use composite is based on seven items: the extent to which students (1) smoke cigarettes, (2) use smokeless
tobacco, (3) have at least one drink of alcohol, (4) have five or more drinks of alcohol in a row, (5) smoke marijuana, (6) use inhalants, and
(7) use any other illegal drug. Values on these items range from 1 to 4; a value of 1 on the composite indicates no substance abuse, while a
value of 4 indicates frequent substance abuse.
dSample sizes can differ substantially both due to nonresponse and because the conditional logit drops all observations where the outcome does
not change across time. The smallest sample size in this table is 117 for outcome ?Sell illegal drugs.? The largest sample size is 3,271 for
outcome ?Negative Behavior Composite (Mean).? The sample size reported in the table is the median sample size for the outcomes in this
table.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
135
grades (Table C.17), developmental outcomes such as working out conflicts and the extent of
social engagement and empathy for others (Table C.18), or feelings of safety and negative
behaviors (Table C.19).
The program access estimates presented in Tables C.9 to C.14 are based on whether students
had access to the program in the second year, whereas the attendance estimates just discussed are
based on how often students attended. We examined the direction and statistical significance of
the two types of estimates to assess their consistency. Seventy percent of estimates were in a
consistent direction, and almost 60 percent were consistent in both their direction and statistical
significance. Both methods found increases in supervision by other adults, decreases in being at
home after school, increases in being at school for activities, increases in students? reporting that
they participated in school activities, and increased classroom effort. Also, both methods
showed no significant estimates for most academic achievement measures, and student feelings
of safety. The estimates were inconsistent for negative behaviors and drug and alcohol use.
7. Alternative Estimates of Attendance Outcome Differences
This section investigates how the estimates of attendance outcome differences just presented
are affected by whether the estimate varies with attendance and by whether outcome differences
are estimated using fixed-effects logit or ordinary least squares.
Nonlinear Effects of Attendance. Allowing for a nonlinear attendance effect generally did
not modify the findings. For some outcomes, however, the nonlinear model indicated that the
benefits of additional attendance depended on how frequently students already attended. Table
C.20 presents the results for a selected set of outcomes that illustrate this point. The linear model
indicates that the effect of attendance on the teacher-reported achievement variable was
insignificant. The nonlinear model indicates that the effect of attendance on the variable was
positive and significant at low attendance levels but insignificant at higher attendance levels
136
Table C.20
Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Specification For Teacher-Reported Achievement and Grades,
Middle School Centers, Year 2
Attendance Estimates
Outcome Linear Model
Quadratic Model,
Effect at 10 Days
Quadratic Model,
Effect at 30 Days
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported That They Achieve
at an ?Above-Average? or ?Very High? Level 0.75 3.71 -0.07
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? That
They Get Good Grades on Tests 1.66 2.20 1.55
Teacher-Reported Achievement Composite (Mean)a -0.01 0.05** 0.01
Mean Grade:
Math 0.06 0.58 0.25
English 0.11 0.27 0.17
Science 0.09 -0.08 0.03
Social studies/history -0.09 0.05 -0.03
Sample Size b 2,588
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: The first column includes a linear attendance term; the last two columns also include a squared attendance term. All effects are
scaled to represent the effect of an additional 10 days in the program. For continuous outcomes, we estimate OLS fixed effects
models by regressing the change in the outcome on the change in attendance and other factors and we use SUDAAN? to take into
account the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors. For binary outcomes, we use the logit command in
STATA? to estimate fixed-effects logit models, and standard errors of the marginal effect are estimated using a bootstrap method.
Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be underestimated. Weights are
used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aThe teacher-reported achievement composite is based on teacher responses to five questions: (1) At what level is this student performing in
reading? (2) Does this student get good grades on tests? (3) Does this student complete assignments to my satisfaction? (4) Does this student
have good communication skills? (5) Is this student a proficient reader? Values on these items range from 1 to 5; a value of 1 on the composite
indicates low achievement, and a value of 5 indicates high achievement.
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse and sample size restrictions imposed by the conditional logit. The number reported in
the table is the median. The outcome with the smallest sample size is ?Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Report That They Achieve at an
?Above-Average? or ?Very High? Level? with 459 and the outcome with the largest sample size is ?English Grade? with 2,890.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
137
(Table C.20). A similar pattern is shown for the teacher-reported level of effort variable (not
shown).
Fixed-Effects Logit and Ordinary Linear Squares. This report presents attendance
outcome differences for discrete outcomes that were estimated using Chamberlain?s (1980)
fixed-effects logit model. Although the logit model is more appropriate for discrete outcomes,
the fixed-effects logit excludes sample members when the outcome does not change across time
periods. If the model is misspecified, the sample exclusions could result in biased estimates. In
particular, if attendance estimates differ across students, the fixed-effects logit model may be
excluding students for whom the effect is small and including students for whom the effect is
larger.
An alternative estimation approach is to use a linear probability model and estimate fixed
effects as if the outcome were continuous. We estimated outcome differences using both
approaches and Tables C.21 and C.22 are examples of these estimates. The tables show the
marginal impacts of attendance rather than the estimated coefficients so the estimates are in
common units. The two methods often yield similar point estimates, but more of the OLS
(ordinary least squares) estimates were statistically significant (possibly because of the larger
sample size that OLS uses). For example, in Table C.21, 6 of the 29 fixed-effects logit estimates
are statistically significant at the 5 percent level or better, whereas 12 of the 29 OLS estimates
are significant. However, for Table C.22, none of the 16 fixed-effects logit estimates are
significant at the 5 percent level, and only 1 of the OLS estimates is significant, a minor
difference.
138
Table C.21
Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Estimation Technique for Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Supervision,
and Activities After School, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcomes Fixed Effects Logit Fixed Effects OLS
Percentage of Students in the Following Types of Supervision at Least Three Days
after School in a Typical Week:
Self-carea -2.22 -1.00**
Parent care -0.20 -0.98**
Nonparent adult care 2.54** 2.62***
Sibling care 1.02 0.17
Mixed care (not in any one category for at least three days) -1.06 -0.12
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at Least Three Days
in a Typical Week:
Own home -2.62*** -3.10***
Someone else?s home -3.26** -1.27***
School or other place for activities 3.37*** 3.35***
Somewhere to ?hang out? -0.82 -0.06
Mixed location (not in one location for at least three days) 1.94 0.65**
Employment of Mother (Parent-Reported):
Full-time -0.70 -0.23
Part-time 1.35 0.39
Looking for work -1.72 0.21
Not in the labor force -1.72 -0.38
Percentage of Students Who Reported Participating in the Following Activities
After School:
Homework 0.66 0.28
Tutoring 4.15*** 2.56***
Non-homework reading, writing, or science activities 1.24 0.14
School activities (band, drama, etc.) 2.90*** 2.14***
Lessons (music, art, dance, etc.) 2.15 0.87**
Organized sports 0.64 0.09
Clubs (Boy and Girl Scouts, Boys and Girls Club, etc.) 1.47 0.23
Activities at church, temple, mosque 0.77 0.52
Watched TV or videos -1.78 -0.49
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer 0.98 1.49***
?Hung out? with friends -0.07 0.61
Volunteered or did community service 1.72 0.68
Worked at a job 1.49 0.86**
Did chores around the house -0.87 -0.38
Took care of a brother or sister 0.15 0.33
Sample Sizeb 777 3,256
SOURCE: Student Survey, Parent Survey.
NOTE: All effects are scaled to represent the effect of an additional 10 days in the program. In each model, the regressor is attendance
(fixed effects logit cannot include time invariant regressors). To estimate the fixed effects logit models, we use the logit command
in STATA? and calculate the standard error of the marginal effect by bootstrapping. Because bootstrapping does not account for
the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be underestimated. We use SUDAAN? to adjust for the stratified sampling
design when calculating standard errors in the OLS regression models. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least three days in a typical
week.
bSample sizes differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse. The sample sizes reported in the table are the medians for each column. In columns
1, the outcome with the smallest sample size is ?Looking for work? with 223 and the outcome with the largest sample size is ?Non-homework
reading, writing, or science activities? with 1,271. In column 2, the outcome with the smallest sample size is ?Not in the labor force? with 2,680
and the outcomes with the largest sample size are the location outcomes (Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at
Least Three Days in a Typical Week) with 3,278.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
139
Table C.22
Sensitivity of Attendance Estimates to Estimation Technique For Student Safety, Negative Behavior,
and Victimization, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Outcome Fixed Effects Logit Fixed Effects OLS
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels of Safety
After School up Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe -1.39 -0.43
Somewhat safe 1.04 0.33
Not at all safe 2.97 0.10
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following ?Some? or
?A Lot?:
Break something on purpose 0.03 0.14
Punch or hit someone -0.59 -0.09
Steal from a store -0.09 0.05
Sell illegal drugs 2.52 0.10
Get arrested or detained by police 0.55 0.03
Percentage of Students Who Reported the Following Happened to Them ?Some? or
?A Lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug -1.14 0.40
Been ?picked on? after school 1.07 -0.32
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 0.19 -0.03
Been threatened by a gang or gang member 1.47 0.31
Had property damaged on purpose -0.40 -0.52
Percentage of Students Who Reported That They Do the Following ?Some? or
?A Lot?:
Smoke cigarettes -4.79 -0.03
Have at least one alcoholic drink -3.08 -0.40***
Smoke marijuana -3.65 -0.12
Sample Size a 345 3,251
SOURCE: Student Survey.
NOTE: All effects are scaled to represent the effect of an additional 10 days in the program. In each model, the regressor is
attendance (fixed effects logit cannot include time invariant regressors). To estimate the fixed effects logit models,
we use the logit command in STATA? and we calculate the standard error of the marginal effect by bootstrapping.
Because bootstrapping does not account for the stratified sampling design, standard errors may be underestimated.
We use SUDAAN? to adjust for the stratified sampling design when calculating standard errors in the OLS
regression models. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aSample sizes may differ for some outcomes due to nonresponse. The sample sizes reported in the table are the medians for each
column. In column 1, the outcome with the smallest sample size is ?Sell illegal drugs? with 117 and the outcome with the
largest sample size is ?Very Safe? with 1,067. In column 2, the outcome with the smallest sample size is ?Been threatened or
hurt with a weapon? with 3,108 and the outcomes with the largest sample size are the Safety Outcomes (Percentage of Students
Who Report Feeling the Following Levels of Safety After School Until 6:00 P.M.) with 3,273.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
*** Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.

APPENDIX D
SUBGROUP TABLES

143
Table D.1a
Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities After School by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Grade Level Baseline Test Scoresa
Baseline Disciplinary
Problems Compositeb
Outcome K ? 2 3 ? 4 5 ? 6 Low High Low High
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations
After School at Least 3 Days in a Typical Week
(According to Parents):
Own home -19.7*** -21.1*** -1.8 -11.3** -21.5*** -19.5*** -12.8*
Someone else?s home 0.5 -5.3 6.0 -4.0 -3.2 -5.5 5.5
School or other place for activities 22.8*** 20.0*** 13.8 25.1*** 19.6*** 24.6*** 15.8**
Somewhere to ?hang out? 0.4 -1.6 -2.3 -1.6 -3.4** -1.8 0.5
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 0.7 0.4 -2.3 -0.7 -0.6 0.0 -1.2
Percentage of Students in the Following Types
of Supervision After School at Least 3 Days
in a Typical Week (According to Parents):
Self-carec -0.3 1.9 -3.1 2.6 -1.2 0.4 -0.9
Parent care -10.0** -12.8** 6.5 -1.6 -17.7*** -15.5*** 7.1
Nonparent adult care 17.2*** 13.3** 1.1 9.1 12.1** 14.3** 8.4
Sibling care -4.7 -16.7*** 9.3 -3.1 -9.5 -9.6 -5.6
Mixed care (no one type of care
for at least 3 days) 0.8 -0.9 -1.4 -0.3 1.9 0.5 -4.6
Employment of Mother:
Full time 2.3 -4.0 10.9 -1.9 4.0 6.7 8.1
Part time 0.1 4.8 0.5 0.1 0.2 -2.7 -1.0
Looking for work 6.5 0.3 -8.8 8.0** -1.3 -0.2 -11.9**
Not in labor force -9.0** -1.2 -2.6 -6.3 -2.9 -3.8 4.8
Percentage of Students Who Participated in Each
Activity at Least Once After School in the Past
Week (According to Parents):
Homework -4.0 -6.8 -0.3 -4.7 -5.5 3.0 -9.1
Tutoring 19.0*** 0.2 0.4 0.2 20.2*** -0.7 -2.5
Non-homework reading, writing, or science -1.2 -0.4 -10.2 0.2 -5.1 -10.5 -8.7
Watched TV or videos -5.3 -8.7 -1.0 -6.9 -1.5 -8.7 4.7
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a
computer 8.0 -3.6 6.1 -7.3 6.0 -7.7 2.4
Hung out with friends -6.3 2.8 0.0 -10.3 -1.1 -0.7 8.5
Mean Number of Hours Spent Watching TV
in the Past Day (According to Students) n.a.d 0.0 0.1 0.4** -0.3 0.0 0.2
Mean Number of Hours Spent Reading for Fun
in the Past Day (According to Students) n.ad 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 -0.1
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes n.a.d 625 456 543 333 673 333
Parent-reported outcomes 704 481 310 660 519 536 254
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as having low (high) scores if they scored below (above) the median reading test score for the study sample.
bThe baseline student discipline composite was based on students?responses to how frequently the following happened to them: (1) were sent to
the office for doing something wrong, (2) have to miss recess or sit in the hall, and (3) parents had to come to school about a problem they are
having. Students are defined as having low (high) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls below (above) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
cStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least 3 days in a typical week.
dStudents in grades K-2 were not administered the student survey because of their age.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
144
Table D.1b
Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Male Female
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations
After School at Least 3 Days in a Typical Week
(According to Parents):
Own home -29.5*** -17.8*** -15.3*** -18.4*** -16.4***
Someone else?s home -2.5 1.5 -6.0 -3.4 -3.1
School or other place for activities 25.5*** 25.6*** 25.6*** 21.0*** 19.1***
Somewhere to ?hang out? -3.1 3.1** 0.4 0.8 -1.3
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 2.8 -0.6 1.5 1.1 -0.5
Percentage of Students Under the Following Types
of Supervision After School at Least 3 Days
in a Typical Week (According to Parents):
Self-care a n.a.b 0.4 0.4 1.1 -0.8
Parent care -10.3 -11.8*** 0.0 -7.7 -12.2***
Nonparent adult care 12.9 14.3*** 5.3 9.7** 7.7
Sibling care -6.5 -0.7 -11.4** -4.9 -6.0
Mixed care (no one type of care for at least 3 days) 1.3 0.0 -1.4 0.6 1.3
Employment of Mother:
Full time 12.0 -0.5 7.1 1.8 2.7
Part time -7.7 3.7 -7.6 -0.9 -1.1
Looking for work 3.3 1.2 8.2 4.8 3.7
Not in labor force -7.6 -4.4 -7.6 -5.6 -5.2
Percentage of Students Who Participated
in Each Activity at Least Once After School
in the Past Week (According to Parents):
Homework -2.9 -7.4** 1.0 -4.9 -3.8
Tutoring -5.6 12.6*** 6.7 8.7** 12.5***
Non-homework reading, writing, or science -9.6 -5.3 6.2 0.1 -3.4
Watched TV or videos -8.4 -6.1 -6.1 -7.2 -2.3
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer 30.1*** -2.0 -1.3 2.9 1.6
Hung out with friends 12.2 1.0 2.5 1.1 -0.6
Mean Number of Hours Spent Watching TV
in the Past Day (According to Students) -1.2*** 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0
Mean Number of Hours Spent Reading for
Fun in the Past Day (According to Students) -0.2*** 0.0 -0.1 0.0 0.0
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 58 474 273 464 548
Parent-reported outcomes 88 843 474 697 718
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least 3 days in a typical week.
bNo white students were reported to be in self-care.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
145
Table D.1c
Impacts on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Household Structurea
Outcome Two Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students in the Following Locations After School at Least 3 Days in a
Typical Week (According to Parents):
Own home -18.5*** -16.9***
Someone else?s home -1.3 -1.3
School or other place for activities 17.0*** 24.6***
Somewhere to ?hang out? -3.2** 2.9
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 1.5 -0.2
Percentage of Students in the Following Types of Supervision After School at Least 3 Days
in a Typical Week (According to Parents):
Self-careb -1.9 1.0
Parent care -7.9 -8.6**
Nonparent adult care 9.1 11.6***
Sibling care -8.1 2.1
Mixed care (no one type of care for at least 3 days) 0.5 1.0
Employment of Mother:
Full time 3.8 -3.4
Part time 1.4 1.0
Looking for work 3.9 2.7
Not in labor force -9.1** -0.2
Percentage of Students Who Participated in Each Activity at Least Once After School in
the Past Week (According to Parents):
Homework -1.3 -6.0**
Tutoring 9.6*** 11.6***
Non-homework reading, writing, or science -1.5 -5.3
Watched TV or videos 1.7 -5.1
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a computer 7.8 -0.7
Hung out with friends 6.2 -1.6
Mean Number of Hours Spent Watching TV in the Past Day (According to Students) 0.3 0.2
Mean Number of Hours Spent Reading for Fun in the Past Day (According to Students) 0.0 0.0
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 396 437
Parent-reported outcomes 797 900
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster
father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
bStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least 3 days in a typical week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
.
146
Table D.2a
Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Classroom Behavior
by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Grade Level Baseline Test Scoresa
Baseline Disciplinary
Problems Compositeb
Outcome K ? 2 3 ? 4 5 ? 6 Low High Low High
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
that They Often Complete Homework -7.8 0.5 -12.2 0.9 -8.6 -5.5 -7.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree?
or ?Strongly Agree? that:
Student completes assignments to my
satisfaction -5.6 2.5 -14.3 5.8 -4.8 -13.4** 6.2
Student comes prepared and ready to learn -5.3 0.8 0.1 -2.8 -1.4 -6.6 3.3
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
that They ?Usually Try Hard? in Reading or
English 4.6 6.8 -10.6 -2.4 5.1 3.4 0.8
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
that They ?Often? Perform at or above Their
Ability -5.0 6.4 1.0 -3.8 -0.3 2.9 3.9
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Composite
(Mean) -0.1 0.1 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? that Child Works Hard at School 0.8 -5.9 -6.1 3.1 -2.4 -5.7 -17.0**
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
Disciplining for Misbehaving ?Two or More
Times? 12.1** -5.2 11.0 8.8 8.6 4.3 1.3
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended 1.6 2.2 -0.4 4.1 1.3 -6.9** 4.9
Number of Observations:
Parent-reported outcomes 791 525 333 652 516 529 252
Teacher-reported outcomes 862 541 346 641 595 564 277
School records outcomes (suspensions) 565 407 225 439 435 385 216
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as having low (high) scores if they scored below (above) the median reading test score for the study sample.
bThe baseline student discipline composite was based on students' responses to how frequently the following three things happened to them: (1)
sent to the office for doing something wrong, (2) have to miss recess or sit in the hall, and (3) parents have to come to school about a problem
they are having. Students are defined as having low (high) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls below (above) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
147
Table D.2b
Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Classroom Behavior
by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Male Female
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that
They Often Complete Homework 4.4 -7.5 -1.3 -4.5 -7.6
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? that:
Student completes assignments to my satisfaction 5.7 -2.9 -8.2 -5.9 -1.6
Student comes prepared and ready to learn 15.1 -3.4 -8.2 -5.4 -2.5
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that
They ?Usually Try Hard? in Reading or English 8.2 -0.5 -2.0 3.6 2.2
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that
They ?Often? Perform at or above Their Ability 7.5 1.5 -3.7 -0.6 -1.2
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Composite (Mean) 0.2 -0.1 0.0 -0.1 0.0
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or
?Strongly Agree? that Child Works Hard at School -0.9 -1.3 -6.2 -2.0 -2.2
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
Disciplining for Misbehaving ?Two or More Times? -6.7 8.8 4.9 3.2 6.3
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended 7.7 3.3 -4.2** 0.4 3.5
Number of Observations:
Parent-reported outcomes 125 902 548 765 803
Teacher-reported outcomes 95 739 464 820 846
School records outcomes (suspensions) 50 531 227 495 624
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
148
Table D.2c
Impacts on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and Classroom Behavior
by Subgroup, Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Household Structurea
Outcome Two Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that They Often Complete Homework -8.6 -1.4
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? that:
Student completes assignments to my satisfaction -3.8 -1.2
Student comes prepared and ready to learn -8.0 2.3
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that They ?Usually Try Hard? in
Reading or English 0.6 3.3
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that They ?Often? Perform at or above
Their Ability -9.0 7.2
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Composite (Mean) -0.2 0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Parents ?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? that Child Works Hard
at School -3.3 -0.4
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported Disciplining for Misbehaving ?Two or
More Times? 9.5 4.1
Percentage of Students Who Were Suspended 1.2 0.2
Number of Observations:
Parent-reported outcomes 794 891
Teacher-reported outcomes 647 750
School records outcomes (suspensions) 431 477
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster
father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
149
Table D.3a
Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Grade Level Baseline Test Scoresa
Baseline
Disciplinary
Problems
Compositeb
Outcome K ? 2 3 ? 4 5 ? 6 Low High Low High
Mean Number of Days School Records Indicate
Student Was:
Absent -0.5 -0.8 1.3 0.8 0.2 -0.3 -0.8
Late 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 -0.4 1.0 -1.3
Mean Student-Reported Reading Confidence
Composite n.a.c 0.1 -0.1 -0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported
that They Achieve at an ?Above Average? or ?Very
High? Level -1.6 -5.8 -7.1 -4.5 -7.3 0.9 -7.4
Mean Class Grade:
Math 0.0 1.7 -1.7 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.6
English 0.3 0.2 -1.4 0.9 -1.5 -0.6 -0.2
Science 0.1 1.4 -1.7 0.8 -0.6 0.1 0.9
Social Studies -0.5 2.3** -0.6 0.7 -1.2 0.9 -1.1
Mean Reading Test Score -3.6 -3.3 -0.7 0.9 -2.1 -5.4 -0.8
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes n.a.c 612 448 535 325 669 321
Teacher-reported outcomes 862 541 346 641 595 564 277
School records outcomes (attendance) 864 625 394 758 649 624 316
School records outcomes (grades) 666 490 367 647 553 501 261
School records outcomes (reading scores) 873 567 392 738 632 624 296
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as having low (high) scores if they scored below (above) the median reading test score for the study sample.
bThe baseline student discipline composite was based on students' responses to how frequently the following three things happened to them: (1)
sent to the office for doing something wrong, (2) have to miss recess or sit in the hall, and (3) parents have to come to school about a problem
they are having. Students are defined as having low (high) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls below (above) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
cStudents in grades K-2 were not administered the student survey because of their age.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
.
150
Table D.3b
Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Male Female
Mean Number of Days School Records Indicate Student
Was:
Absent 0.4 0.4 -1.8** 0.2 -0.3
Late 1.0 1.0 -2.4*** -1.3 1.5
Mean Student-Reported Reading Confidence Composite -0.5** 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Reported that They
Achieve at an ?Above Average? or ?Very High? Level -8.3 -1.4 7.2 -4.6 -3.6
Mean Class Grade:
Math 2.6 0.8 -1.2 -0.1 0.1
English 3.8 -0.1 0.3 -0.2 0.0
Science 4.8 0.4 0.4 -0.5 0.4
Social Studies 4.0 1.7 -1.2 -0.5 1.1
Mean Reading Test Score 0.4 -0.5 -2.8 -2.1 2.9
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 57 466 268 453 538
Teacher-reported outcomes 95 739 464 820 846
School records outcomes (attendance) 86 786 468 937 966
School records outcomes (grades) 49 679 420 736 771
School records outcomes (reading scores) 99 785 474 871 911
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
151
Table D.3c
Impacts on Student Attendance and Academic Achievement by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Household Structurea
Outcome Two Parent One Parent
Mean Number of Days School Records Indicate Student Was:
Absent -0.3 0.2
Late 0.2 0.9
Mean Student-Reported Reading Confidence Composite -0.1 0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers Report that They Achieve at an ?Above Average?
or ?Very High? Level -5.6 1.4
Mean Class Grade
Math 0.5 -0.2
English 0.6 -0.4
Science 3.0** -0.2
Social Studies 1.2 0.5
Mean Reading Test Score -3.3 2.2
Number of Observations
Student-reported outcomes 386 432
Teacher-reported outcomes 647 750
School records outcomes (attendance) 693 764
School records outcomes (grades) 568 646
School records outcomes (reading scores) 693 770
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster
father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
152
Table D.4a
Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Grade Level Baseline Test Scoresa
Baseline Disciplinary
Problems Compositeb
Outcome K ? 2 3 ? 4 5 ? 6 Low High Low High
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Feeling the Following Levels of Safety
After School Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe n.a.c 1.1 -5.4 2.9 -0.2 -1.6 -10.5
Somewhat safe n.a.c -0.6 7.9 0.9 -0.2 3.4 9.5
Not at all safe n.a.c -0.4 -2.5 -3.8 0.4 -1.8 1.0
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Helping Another Student After School n.a.c 10.9** 8.5 13.4** -1.7 7.4 5.7
Student-Reported Disciplinary Problems
Composite (Mean) n.a.c -0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Parents
Reported that They Often Ask Student
Things He or She Did in Class 7.5 4.3 9.4 7.4 0.6 -2.4 11.2
Percentage of Students Whose Parents
Report Helping Them with Homework at
Least Three Times Last Week 9.5** 3.4 -4.2 -4.0 -2.8 9.7 -6.7
Percentage of Students Whose Parents
Did the Following at Least Three Times
Last Year:
Attended an open house at school -0.9 -1.0 4.2 5.8 -2.8 -2.0 0.2
Attended a PTO meeting 4.3 6.9 7.6 12.7** 7.0 -1.4 3.2
Attended an after-school event 11.1** 10.7 16.7** 11.1** 12.7** 6.6 12.1
Volunteered to help out at school -7.0 1.9 -7.2 -3.2 -3.5 -8.3 2.9
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes n.a.c 625 454 538 332 674 330
Parent-reported outcomes 698 476 309 585 457 481 235
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are defined as having low (high) scores if they scored below (above) the median reading test score for the study sample.
bThe baseline student discipline composite was based on students' responses to how frequently the following three things happened to them: (1)
sent to the office for doing something wrong, (2) have to miss recess or sit in the hall, and (3) parents have to come to school about a problem
they are having. Students are defined as having low (high) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls below (above) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
cStudents in grades K-2 were not administered the student survey because of their age.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
153
Table D.4b
Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Estimated Impact
Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Male Female
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the
Following Levels of Safety After School Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe -3.3 0.9 -0.5 6.8 -9.9
Somewhat safe 3.3 -1.9 3.9 -3.9 11.4**
Not at all safe 0.0 1.0 -3.4 -2.9 -1.5
Percentage of Students Who Reported Helping Another
Student After School 14.4 15.4*** 0.5 16.2** -3.4
Student-Reported Disciplinary Problems Composite
(Mean) 0.0 0.1 -0.2 0.1 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Reported that They
Often Ask Student Things He or She Did in Class -10.0 7.3 -6.5 9.8** 6.3
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Reported Helping
Them with Homework at Least Three Times Last Week 13.4 2.2 8.0 11.7** 5.2
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following
at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at school -3.4 7.1 -3.4 5.3 -4.8
Attended a PTO meeting 17.7 0.9 6.5 1.6 6.6
Attended an after-school event 5.7 13.4*** 6.4 12.1*** 9.6**
Volunteered to help out at school -3.0 -3.8 -0.6 -1.8 -2.4
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 58 473 271 463 545
Parent-reported outcomes 86 838 465 690 711
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
154
Table D.4c
Impacts on Other Student and Parent Outcomes by Subgroup,
Elementary School Centers, Year 1
Household Structurea
Outcome Two Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling the Following Levels of Safety After
School Until 6 p.m.:
Very safe 7.5 -11.3
Somewhat safe -5.9 12.3**
Not at all safe -1.5 -1.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported Helping Another Student After School 12.0 7.5
Student-Reported Disciplinary Problems Composite (Mean) 0.1 -0.1
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Reported that They Often Ask Student Things He
or She Did in Class 1.9 10.9**
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Reported Helping Them with Homework at Least
Three Times Last Week 9.7 6.6
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the Following at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at school 0.4 -3.4
Attended a PTO meeting 5.3 -0.1
Attended an after-school event 13.8*** 3.7
Volunteered to help out at school 8.0 -12.6***
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 393 438
Parent-reported outcomes 710 804
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup impacts reported in bold indicate that the estimated impact for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
subgroup impact for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
aStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster
father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
155
Table D.5a
Outcome Differences on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the estimated
outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for nonresponse.
Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
aStudents are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least 3 days in a typical week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
Difference
Grade Level Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome 5 ? 6 7 ? 8
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Female Male
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Being in the Following Locations After
School at Least 3 Days in a Typical Week:
Own home -0.1 -3.0 -6.9*** 0.6 1.3 -3.3 -1.1
Someone else?s home 3.4 -0.2 -0.6 1.0 -1.7 2.8 -1.9
School or other place for activities 5.2 4.3*** 0.4 5.0 5.5 4.2** 4.9
Somewhere to ?hang out? 0.4 3.5 1.0 6.2*** 1.0 3.4** 2.1
Mixed (no one location for at least 3
days) 0.4 0.4 5.6*** -0.5 -2.1 1.3
-0.6
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Being in the Following Types of
Supervision After School at Least 3 Days in
a Typical Week:
Self -carea -1.0 -0.7 3.0 -0.8 -0.9 -1.3 -0.5
Parent care 3.3 -3.5 -6.5** -5.3 4.0 -2.3 -1.4
Nonparent adult care 1.6 6.2** 2.6 2.6 4.4 4.5 5.9
Sibling care -6.5*** -2.9 -4.0 1.1 -8.6*** -3.3 -4.2**
Mixed care (no one category for at least
3 days) -1.6 -1.3 0.2 -1.8 -1.9 -0.6
-2.2
Employment of Mother (Parent-Reported):
Full time -0.8 -3.4 -5.5 2.4 -2.9 -1.3 -4.6**
Part time 2.9 2.1 1.8 3.2 1.6 2.3 2.4
Looking for work -1.1 -0.3 1.6 -1.3 -1.7 -1.9 1.2
Not in the labor force -1.0 1.6 2.1 -4.3 2.9 0.9 1.0
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Participating in the Following Activities
After School:
Homework -3.0 -1.8 0.6 -6.3 -2.7 -2.4 -1.7
Tutoring 1.9 3.9 2.8 13.1*** -3.0 4.2 2.9
Non-homework reading, writing, or
science 6.4 1.2 1.6 7.6** 3.5 4.4
0.3
Watched TV or videos -2.2 2.5 3.8 4.9 -2.6 1.4 1.5
Surfed the Internet or did other things on
a computer 3.4 -1.2 -3.9 5.7 1.4 0.0
-0.5
Hung out with friends 6.0*** 3.5*** 3.6 7.7*** 2.3 5.6*** 2.3
Mean Number of Hours Spent Watching TV
in the Past Day (According to Students) -0.05 0.03 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.02 -0.01
Mean Number of Hours Spent Reading for
Fun in the Past Day (According to Students) -0.01 0.02 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.03 0.00
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 1,080 2,725 1,334 909 1,020 2,041 1,763
Parent-reported outcomes 963 2,425 1,216 770 933 1,824 1,563
156
Table D.5b
Outcome Differences on Maternal Employment and Students? Location, Care, and Activities
After School by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Difference
Baseline Gradesa
Baseline Disciplinary Problems
Compositeb Household Structurec
Outcome Low High Low High Two Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students Who Reported Being in the
Following Locations After School at Least 3 Days in
a Typical Week:
Own home -3.0 -2.0 -3.6 -0.2 -1.5 -5.8***
Someone else?s home -1.1 1.7 1.3 -0.7 0.9 2.2
School or other place for activities 6.6*** 2.7 4.9 4.0 4.5** 4.5
Somewhere to ?hang out? 3.5 1.9 3.0 2.5 2.5 5.4**
Mixed (no one location for at least 3 days) 0.2 0.6 0.3 1.0 -0.8 4.2***
Percentage of Students Who Reported Being in the
Following Types of Supervision After School at Least
3 Days in a Typical Week:
Self -cared -3.5 1.2 -1.4 0.5 0.2 1.3
Parent care 2.5 -3.8 -1.4 -3.0 0.9 -7.5***
Nonparent adult care 5.3 4.7 4.8 5.2 1.7 5.4
Sibling care -1.7 -5.8*** -5.0** -1.4 -5.8** -2.4
Mixed care (no one category for at least 3 days) -1.1 -1.8 -1.0 -1.9 -0.8 -1.3
Employment of Mother (Parent-Reported):
Full time -4.4 -2.9 -1.4 -7.5*** -2.2 -1.4
Part time 6.1** 0.9 2.2 2.5 1.6 0.3
Looking for work 0.6 -0.5 -2.0 3.7 -0.9 -0.2
Not in the labor force -2.3 2.6 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.3
Percentage of Students Who Reported Participating in
the Following Activities After School:
Homework -3.8 -2.0 -2.9** -0.2 -2.2 -3.5
Tutoring 1.0 4.1** 2.1 5.3 2.2 5.3
Non-homework reading, writing, or science 2.5 1.1 3.0 2.1 1.4 6.4
Watched TV or videos 0.8 1.7 2.8 -1.2 1.7 2.8
Surfed the Internet or did other things on a
computer 0.6 -1.1 -0.2 0.0 2.3 -2.2
Hung out with friends 3.4 3.9*** 6.6*** -1.4 4.1*** 5.7***
Mean Number of Hours Spent Watching TV in the
Past Day (According to Students) -0.05 0.05 0.07 -0.12 -0.04 0.07
Mean Number of Hours Spent Reading for Fun in the
Past Day (According to Students) 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.00 0.06
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 1,130 2,593 2,497 1,212 2,149 1,328
Parent-reported outcomes 994 2,328 2,217 1,079 2,007 1,197
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
aStudents are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades of C, D, or F; students are defined as having high baseline grades if
they reported average grades of A or B.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class, (2) getting sent to
the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem they are having. The composite
is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent
discipline problems. Students are defined as having high (low) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls above (below) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
cStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster father, or
male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
d
Students are defined as being in self-care if they were not with a parent, a nonparent adult, or an older sibling at least 3 days in a typical week.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
157
Table D.6a
Outcome Differences on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and
Classroom Behavior by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
Difference
Grade Level Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome 5 ? 6 7 ? 8
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Female Male
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly
Agree? that:
Student completes assignments
to my satisfaction 3.4 -4.0 -5.1** -5.2 2.0 -0.6 -4.1
Student comes prepared and
ready to learn -0.5 0.2 -4.0 1.3 2.6 -1.2 1.3
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers ?Agree? or ?Strongly
Agree? that:
The student is attentive in class 2.5 -2.1 -2.4 0.3 -2.3 -1.3 -0.6
The student participates in class 3.2 -1.0 -3.3 1.8 4.8 0.0 0.3
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers Reported that They
?Usually Try Hard? in Class 1.7 0.4 0.5 3.3 -1.8 1.0 0.3
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers Reported that They
?Often? Perform at or above Their
Ability Level -1.2 -2.8 -7.9** 0.6 -1.1 -1.8 -3.4
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort
Composite (Mean) 0.04 0.00 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.00 0.02
Teacher-Reported Disciplinary
Problems Composite (Mean) -0.02 0.02 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.02 -0.01
Mean Number of Days School
Records Indicate Student Was:
Absent -1.11 -0.99** -1.1** -1.6 -0.7 -1.09** -0.96**
Late 0.64 0.91 0.5 1.8 0.6 0.76 0.92
Percentage of Students Whose
Teachers Reported They Achieve
at an ?Above Average? or ?Very
High? Level -1.6 -3.2 -6.0 0.5 -2.2 -1.2 -4.7**
Mean Class Grade:
Math 1.1 0.5 1.0 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.2
English 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.9 -0.1
Science 1.0 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.1
Social Studies 0.6 2.0*** 1.5 3.2*** 0.7 1.5** 1.9**
Number of Observations:
Teacher-reported outcomes 1,082 2,560 1,288 881 941 1,947 1,693
School records outcomes
(attendance) 1,060 2,728 1,324 899 1,016 2,016 1,771
School records outcomes
(grades) 1,043 2,600 1,300 863 971 1,936 1,696
158
Table D.6b
Outcome Differences on Homework Completion, Level of Effort, and
Classroom Behavior by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Difference
Baseline Gradesa Baseline Disciplinary Problems
Compositeb
Household Structurec
Outcome Low High Low High Two Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? that:
Student completes assignments to my
satisfaction -1.8 -2.2 -0.5 -3.6 0.8 -5.0**
Student comes prepared and ready to learn 1.6 -0.7 1.5 -1.3 0.7 0.7
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
?Agree? or ?Strongly Agree? that:
Student is attentive in class -0.8 -0.5 1.9 -5.7 0.2 -3.0
Student participates in class 0.8 -0.1 1.8 -2.1 1.5 -2.3
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
Reported that They ?Usually Try Hard? in
Class 2.2 0.7 1.8 -1.5 1.4 0.0
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
Reported that They ?Often? Perform at or
above Their Ability Level 0.6 -4.1 -3.2 -0.5 -1.3 -3.1
Teacher-Reported Level of Effort Composite
(Mean) 0.06 -0.01 0.04 -0.04 0.03 -0.04
Teacher-Reported Disciplinary Problems
Composite (Mean) 0.05 -0.02 -0.01 0.04 -0.04 0.03
Mean Number of Days School Records
Indicate Student Was:
Absent -0.93 -1.04** -0.93*** -1.13 -1.23*** 0.02
Late 2.06** 0.21 0.85 0.79 0.47 1.20
Percentage of Students Whose Teachers
Reported They Achieve at an ?Above
Average? or ?Very High? Level 1.7 -4.6 -2.3 -4.4 -2.9 -2.7
Mean Class Grade:
Math 0.9 0.5 1.5*** -0.8 1.0 0.7
English 1.6** -0.1 1.0 -0.8 1.3*** -0.5
Science 0.9 0.3 0.9 -0.1 0.9 -0.2
Social Studies 3.2*** 0.9 2.2*** 0.8 1.8*** 1.4
Number of Observations:
Teacher-reported outcomes 1,090 2,470 2,374 1,167 1,917 1,188
School records outcomes (attendance) 1,117 2,587 2,468 1,227 2,019 1,220
School records outcomes (grades) 1,067 2,507 2,403 1,156 1,959 1,164
SOURCE: Teacher Survey, School Records.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
aStudents are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades of C, D, or F; students are defined as having high baseline grades if
they reported average grades of A or B.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class, (2) getting sent to
the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem they are having. The composite
is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems, while a value of 4 indicates frequent
discipline problems. Students are defined as having high (low) levels of discipline problems if the composite falls above (below) the median of the
composite for the study sample.
cStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster father, or
male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
159
Table D.7a
Outcome Differences on Other Student and Parent Outcomes
by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Difference
Grade Level Race/Ethnicity Gender
Outcome 5 ? 6 7 ? 8
White (Non-
Hispanic)
Black (Non-
Hispanic) Hispanic Female Male
Percentage of Students Who Reported
Feeling the Following Levels of Safety
After School Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe 1.5 -3.5 -5.3** 1.8 -1.9 -3.1 -1.5
Somewhat safe -0.4 2.7 3.9 -2.7 2.7 3.2 0.7
Not at all safe -1.1 0.8** 1.4** 0.8 -0.7 -0.1 0.8
Student-Reported Delinquent Behavior
Composite (Mean) 0.05 0.01 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.03 0.01
Percentage of Students Who Rated
Themselves as Skilled in Working out
Conflicts with Others -4.3 -2.5 -2.0 -8.0** 1.4 -3.8 -2.2
Student Educational Expectations
(Percentages):
Graduate from college 1.9 2.7** -2.0 1.3 3.5 3.7** 1.3
Graduate from high school -1.1 -2.5 1.6 -0.5 -3.0 -3.6 -0.6
Drop out of high school -0.8 -0.3 0.4 -0.7 -0.5 -0.1 -0.7
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did
the Following at Least Three Times Last
Year:
Attended an open house at school -5.0 2.3 0.4 1.9 -1.0 -0.9 2.2
Attended a PTO meeting 4.1 0.4 0.0 4.4 -1.3 0.0 2.7
Attended an after-school event 1.3 1.6 -1.0 3.6 2.0 0.3 3.3
Volunteered to help out at school 5.1** 1.1 1.3 0.6 5.5 2.2 2.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported the
Following Happened to Them ?Some? or
?A lot?
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal
drug 1.1 -1.6 1.3 -2.9 -3.2 -3.1** 1.3
Been picked on after school -2.0 4.6** 3.4 5.4 1.8 1.7 4.3
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.2 0.8 0.8 1.4
Been threatened by a gang member -2.8 1.0 0.5 0.9 -1.1 0.2 0.1
Had your property damaged on purpose 2.2 2.3 -0.1 8.7*** -1.8 1.9 2.7
Percentage of Students Who Reported that
They Do the Following ?Some? or ?A lot?
Break something on purpose 2.7 2.1 2.8 2.8 2.1 2.5 1.9
Punch/hit someone 2.4 3.0 4.0** 5.9 -1.0 3.7 1.8
Sell illegal drugs -1.5** 0.0 -0.1 -1.0 -0.2 0.0 -0.7
Get arrested 0.7 -0.1 0.4 -1.1 0.3 -0.4 0.7
Percentage of Students Who Reported that
They Do the Following ?Some? or ?A lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 0.6 0.7 1.4 1.4 -1.0 0.5 0.8
Smoke marijuana 0.4 0.4 0.3 1.5 -0.2 0.9 -0.1
Drink alcohol 2.8 0.1 1.3 3.1 -0.2 2.4 -1.1
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, Drug
Use Composite (Mean) 0.02 0.01 0.0 0.0** 0.0 0.02** 0.01
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 1,087 2,728 1,341 910 1,019 2,044 1,770
Parent-reported outcomes 967 2,436 1,226 783 927 1,832 1,570
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.
160
Table D.7b
Outcome Differences on Other Student and Parent Outcomes
by Subgroup, Middle School Centers, Year 2
Difference
Baseline Gradesa
Baseline Disciplinary
Problems Compositeb Household Structurec
Outcome Low High Low High
Two
Parent One Parent
Percentage of Students Who Reported Feeling
the Following Levels of Safety After School
Until 6:00 P.M.:
Very safe -1.4 -4.1 -2.8 -1.3 -4.1 -2.7
Somewhat safe 1.0 3.5 2.5 0.4 3.4 1.7
Not safe at all 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.9 0.7 1.0
Student-Reported Delinquent Behavior
Composite (Mean) 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.04**
Percentage of Students Who Rated Themselves
as Skilled in Working out Conflicts with Others 0.2 -4.8 -2.5 -2.7 -2.8 -2.9
Student Educational Expectations
(Percentages):
Graduate from college 4.2 1.5 1.7 5.0 2.7 2.8
Graduate from high school -4.2 -1.1 -1.0 -4.8 -2.6 -2.5
Drop out of high school 0.0 -0.4 -0.6 -0.2 -0.1 -0.2
Percentage of Students Whose Parents Did the
Following at Least Three Times Last Year:
Attended an open house at school -1.9 1.3 2.3 -3.8 2.8 -0.1
Attended a PTO meeting 1.2 2.0 1.6 -1.0 1.3 4.5
Attended an after-school event 3.0 1.0 1.0 3.4 2.3 -0.2
Volunteered to help out at school 2.3 2.2 3.3 0.0 3.3 -1.1
Percentage of Students Who Reported the
Following Happened to Them ?Some? or
?A lot?:
Been offered, sold, or given an illegal drug -6.2*** 1.1 -1.1 0.2 -0.6 -2.0
Been picked on after school 4.9 2.0 0.9 6.3 2.0 8.0***
Been threatened or hurt with a weapon 2.9 0.3 0.9 1.4 -0.2 2.6
Been threatened by a gang member 0.3 -0.1 -0.3 0.9 0.4 1.8
Had your property damaged on purpose 2.4 1.6 0.3 6.2** 0.5 6.4***
Percentage of Students Who Reported that
They Do the Following ?Some? or ?A lot?:
Break something on purpose 2.9** 2.1 1.5 3.3** 1.1 2.0
Punch/hit someone 3.1 3.4** 3.9*** 0.8 3.6** 1.8
Sell illegal drugs -0.6 -0.2 -0.2 -0.5 -1.1*** 0.2
Get arrested 0.4 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.4 1.3
Percentage of Students Who Reported that They
Do the Following ?Some? or ?A lot?:
Smoke cigarettes 1.4** 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.1 0.3
Smoke marijuana -2.0 1.7*** 0.2 1.0 0.6 0.4
Drink alcohol -2.6 2.5 1.9 -0.7 0.1 -0.6
Student-Reported Tobacco, Alcohol, Drug Use
Composite (Mean) -0.02 0.03** 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01
Number of Observations:
Student-reported outcomes 1,133 2,600 2,499 1,220 2,154 1,331
Parent-reported outcomes 1,005 2,330 2,226 1,085 2,000 1,213
Table D.7b (continued)
161
SOURCE: Parent Survey, Student Follow-up Survey.
NOTE: Subgroup estimates reported in bold indicate that the estimated outcome difference for one subgroup differed significantly from the
estimated outcome difference for the other related subgroup(s) at the .05 level or higher. Weights are used to adjust estimates for
nonresponse. Variances are estimated using SUDAAN? to account for the statistical sampling design.
aStudents are defined as having low baseline grades if they reported average grades of C, D, or F; students are defined as having high baseline
grades if they reported average grades of A or B.
bThe student-based discipline problem composite is based on four items: the extent to which students report (1) skipping school or class,
(2) getting sent to the office for doing something wrong, (3) getting detention, and (4) having their parents called to school about a problem they
are having. The composite is equal to the mean of the four variables. A value of 1 on the composite indicates infrequent discipline problems,
while a value of 4 indicates frequent discipline problems. Students are defined as having high (low) levels of discipline problems if the
composite falls above (below) the median of the composite for the study sample.
cStudents are in the "two parent" subgroup if they live with a mother, stepmother, foster mother, or female guardian and a father, stepfather, foster
father, or male guardian. If they do not live with both a male and female parent or guardian, students are in the "one parent" subgroup.
**Significantly different from zero at the .05 significance level, two-tailed test.
***Significantly different from zero at the .01 significance level, two-tailed test.

NCEE 2004-3001


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